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Updated: 34 min 39 sec ago

Galera Cluster and Antivirus Scanner on Linux

Tue, 2017-12-12 22:51

Today we had to investigate in a very strange behaviour of IST and SST on a MariaDB Galera Cluster.

The symptom was, that some Galera Cluster nodes took a very long time to start. Up to 7 minutes. So the customer was concluding that the Galera Cluster node does an SST instead of an IST and was asking why the SST happens.

It have to be mentioned here, that the MariaDB error log is very confusing about whether it is an SST or an IST. So the customer was confused and concluded, that MariaDB Galera Cluster was doing an SST instead of IST.

Further confusing was that this behaviour was not consistently on all 3 nodes and not consistently on the 3 stages production, test and integration.

First we had to clear if the Galera node was doing an IST or an SST to exclude problems with Galera Cache or event Bugs in MariaDB Galera Cluster. For this we were running our famous insert_test.sh and did some node restarts with forcing SST and without.

As a Galera Cluster operator you must mandatorily be capable to determine which one of both State Transfers happens from the MariaDB error log:

MariaDB Error Log with IST on Joiner 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: Shifting OPEN -> PRIMARY (TO: 204013) 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: State transfer required: Group state: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:204013 Local state: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:201439 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: New cluster view: global state: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:204013, view# 7: Primary, number of nodes: 3, my index: 2, protocol version 3 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Warning] WSREP: Gap in state sequence. Need state transfer. 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158116558592 [Note] WSREP: Running: 'wsrep_sst_rsync --role 'joiner' --address '127.0.0.1' --datadir '/home/mysql/database/magal-101-b/data/' --defaults-file '/home/mysql/database/magal-101-b/etc/my.cnf' --parent '16426' --binlog '/home/mysql/database/magal-101-b/binlog/laptop4_magal-101-b__binlog' ' 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: Prepared SST request: rsync|127.0.0.1:4444/rsync_sst 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: REPL Protocols: 7 (3, 2) 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: Assign initial position for certification: 204013, protocol version: 3 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158203852544 [Note] WSREP: Service thread queue flushed. 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: IST receiver addr using tcp://127.0.0.1:5681 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: Prepared IST receiver, listening at: tcp://127.0.0.1:5681 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: Member 2.0 (Node B) requested state transfer from 'Node C'. Selected 1.0 (Node C)(SYNCED) as donor. 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: Shifting PRIMARY -> JOINER (TO: 204050) 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: Requesting state transfer: success, donor: 1 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: GCache history reset: old(e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:0) -> new(e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:204013) 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: 1.0 (Node C): State transfer to 2.0 (Node B) complete. 2017-12-12 22:29:33 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: Member 1.0 (Node C) synced with group. WSREP_SST: [INFO] Joiner cleanup. rsync PID: 16663 (20171212 22:29:34.474) WSREP_SST: [INFO] Joiner cleanup done. (20171212 22:29:34.980) 2017-12-12 22:29:34 140158427056064 [Note] WSREP: SST complete, seqno: 201439 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158427056064 [Note] WSREP: Signalling provider to continue. 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158427056064 [Note] WSREP: SST received: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:201439 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: Receiving IST: 2574 writesets, seqnos 201439-204013 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: IST received: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:204013 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: 2.0 (Node B): State transfer from 1.0 (Node C) complete. 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: Shifting JOINER -> JOINED (TO: 204534) 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: Member 2.0 (Node B) synced with group. 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158145914624 [Note] WSREP: Shifting JOINED -> SYNCED (TO: 204535) 2017-12-12 22:29:35 140158426741504 [Note] WSREP: Synchronized with group, ready for connections
MariaDB Error Log with SST on Joiner 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: Shifting OPEN -> PRIMARY (TO: 239097) 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: State transfer required: Group state: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:239097 Local state: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000:-1 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: New cluster view: global state: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:239097, view# 9: Primary, number of nodes: 3, my index: 2, protocol version 3 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Warning] WSREP: Gap in state sequence. Need state transfer. 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817094477568 [Note] WSREP: Running: 'wsrep_sst_rsync --role 'joiner' --address '127.0.0.1' --datadir '/home/mysql/database/magal-101-b/data/' --defaults-file '/home/mysql/database/magal-101-b/etc/my.cnf' --parent '25291' --binlog '/home/mysql/database/magal-101-b/binlog/laptop4_magal-101-b__binlog' ' 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: Prepared SST request: rsync|127.0.0.1:4444/rsync_sst 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: REPL Protocols: 7 (3, 2) 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: Assign initial position for certification: 239097, protocol version: 3 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817178507008 [Note] WSREP: Service thread queue flushed. 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Warning] WSREP: Failed to prepare for incremental state transfer: Local state UUID (00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000) does not match group state UUID (e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774): 1 (Operation not permitted) at galera/src/replicator_str.cpp:prepare_for_IST():482. IST will be unavailable. 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: Member 2.0 (Node B) requested state transfer from 'Node C'. Selected 1.0 (Node C)(SYNCED) as donor. 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: Shifting PRIMARY -> JOINER (TO: 239136) 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: Requesting state transfer: success, donor: 1 2017-12-12 22:32:15 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: GCache history reset: old(00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000:0) -> new(e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:239097) 2017-12-12 22:32:17 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: 1.0 (Node C): State transfer to 2.0 (Node B) complete. 2017-12-12 22:32:17 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: Member 1.0 (Node C) synced with group. WSREP_SST: [INFO] Joiner cleanup. rsync PID: 25520 (20171212 22:32:17.846) WSREP_SST: [INFO] Joiner cleanup done. (20171212 22:32:18.352) 2017-12-12 22:32:18 139817401710528 [Note] WSREP: SST complete, seqno: 239153 2017-12-12 22:32:18 139817132226304 [Note] WSREP: (ebfd9e9c, 'tcp://127.0.0.1:5680') turning message relay requesting off 2017-12-12 22:32:22 139817401710528 [Note] WSREP: Signalling provider to continue. 2017-12-12 22:32:22 139817401710528 [Note] WSREP: SST received: e2fbbca5-df26-11e7-8ee2-bb61f8ff3774:239153 2017-12-12 22:32:22 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: 2.0 (Node B): State transfer from 1.0 (Node C) complete. 2017-12-12 22:32:22 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: Shifting JOINER -> JOINED (TO: 239858) 2017-12-12 22:32:22 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: Member 2.0 (Node B) synced with group. 2017-12-12 22:32:22 139817123833600 [Note] WSREP: Shifting JOINED -> SYNCED (TO: 239866) 2017-12-12 22:32:22 139817401395968 [Note] WSREP: Synchronized with group, ready for connections

After we cleared that it really was an IST and that it was not a SST because of some other reasons the question rose: Why does an IST of only a few thousand transactions was taking 420 seconds. And this was not always the case...

So we were looking with top at the Donor and the Joiner during IST and we found that on the Donor node the Antivirus software was heavily using CPU (2 x 50%) and otherwise the system was doing nothing for a while and then suddenly started to transfer data over the network (possibly IST?).
Later we found, that the MariaDB datadir (/var/lib/mysql) was not excluded from the Antivirus software. And finally it looks like the Antivirus software was not properly configured by its Master server because the Antivirus software agent was from a cloned VM and not reinitialized. So the Antivirus Master server seems to be confused because there are 2 Antivirus software agents with the same ID.

Another very surprising situation which we did not expect was, that IST was much heavier influenced by the Antivirus software than SST. SST finished in a few seconds while IST took 420 seconds.

Conclusion: Be careful when using Antivirus software in combination with MariaDB Galera Cluster databases and exclude at least all database directories from virus scanning. If you want to be sure to avoid side effects (noisy neighbours) disable the Antivirus software on the database server at all and make sure by other means, that no virus is reaching your precious MariaDB Galera Cluster...

Taxonomy upgrade extras: Galera ClusterVirusAntivirusISTSSTnoisy neighbours

First Docker steps with MySQL and MariaDB

Fri, 2017-11-24 23:05

The Docker version of the distributions are often quite old. On Ubuntu 16.04 for example:

shell> docker --version Docker version 1.13.1, build 092cba3

But the current docker version is 17.09.0-ce (2017-09-26). It seems like they have switched from the old version schema x.y.z to the new year.month.version version schema in February/March 2017.

Install Docker CE Repository

Add the Docker's official PGP key:

shell> curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo apt-key add - OK

Add the Docker repository:

shell> echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu \ $(lsb_release -cs) \ stable" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/docker.list shell> apt-get update

Install or upgrade Docker:

shell> apt-get install docker-ce shell> docker --version Docker version 17.09.0-ce, build afdb6d4

To test your Docker installation run:

shell> docker run --rm hello-world
Add Docker containers for MariaDB, MySQL and MySQL Enterprise Edition

First we want to see what Docker containers are available:

shell> docker search mysql --no-trunc --filter=stars=100 NAME DESCRIPTION STARS OFFICIAL AUTOMATED mysql MySQL is a widely used, open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). 5273 [OK] mariadb MariaDB is a community-developed fork of MySQL intended to remain free under the GNU GPL. 1634 [OK] mysql/mysql-server Optimized MySQL Server Docker images. Created, maintained and supported by the MySQL team at Oracle 368 [OK] percona Percona Server is a fork of the MySQL relational database management system created by Percona. 303 [OK] ...

OK. It seems like MySQL Server Enterprise Edition is missing. So we have to create an account on Docker Store and get the MySQL Server Enterprise Edition Image from there:

shell> docker login --username=fromdual Password: Login Succeeded

Unfortunately one can still not see MySQL Server Enterprise Edition.

But we can try anyway:

shell> docker pull store/oracle/mysql-enterprise-server:5.7 shell> docker logout shell> docker pull mysql shell> docker pull mariadb shell> docker pull mysql/mysql-server

To see what is going on on your local Docker registry you can type:

shell> docker images REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE mariadb latest abcee1d29aac 8 days ago 396MB mysql latest 5709795eeffa 2 weeks ago 408MB mysql/mysql-server latest a3ee341faefb 5 weeks ago 246MB store/oracle/mysql-enterprise-server 5.7 41bf2fa0b4a1 4 months ago 244MB hello-world latest 48b5124b2768 10 months ago 1.84kB

I personally do not like that all those images which are tagged with latest because I want a clear control over what version is used. MariaDB and MySQL community server have implemented this quite nicely but not MySQL Enterprise Edition:

shell> docker pull mariadb:10.0 shell> docker pull mariadb:10.0.23 shell> docker pull mysql:8.0 shell> docker pull mysql:8.0.3 docker images | sort REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE hello-world latest 48b5124b2768 10 months ago 1.84kB mariadb 10.0.23 93631b528e67 21 months ago 305MB mariadb 10.0 eecd58425049 8 days ago 337MB mariadb latest abcee1d29aac 8 days ago 396MB mysql 8.0.3 e691422324d8 2 weeks ago 343MB mysql 8.0 e691422324d8 2 weeks ago 343MB mysql latest 5709795eeffa 2 weeks ago 408MB mysql/mysql-server latest a3ee341faefb 5 weeks ago 246MB store/oracle/mysql-enterprise-server 5.7 41bf2fa0b4a1 4 months ago 244MB
Run a MariaDB server container

Start a new Docker container from the MariaDB image by running:

shell> CONTAINER_NAME=mariadb shell> CONTAINER_IMAGE=mariadb shell> TAG=latest shell> MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=Secret-123 shell> MYSQL_ROOT_USER=root shell> docker run \ --name=${CONTAINER_NAME} \ --detach \ --env=MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD} \ ${CONTAINER_IMAGE}:${TAG} shell> docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 60d7b6de7ed1 mariadb:latest "docker-entrypoint..." 24 seconds ago Up 23 seconds 3306/tcp mariadb shell> docker logs ${CONTAINER_NAME} shell> docker exec \ --interactive \ --tty \ ${CONTAINER_NAME} \ mysql --user=${MYSQL_ROOT_USER} --password=${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD} --execute="status" shell> docker image tag mariadb:latest mariadb:10.2.10 shell> docker exec --interactive \ --tty \ ${CONTAINER_NAME} \ bash shell> docker stop ${CONTAINER_NAME} shell> docker rm ${CONTAINER_NAME}
Run a MySQL Community server container shell> CONTAINER_NAME=mysql shell> CONTAINER_IMAGE=mysql/mysql-server shell> TAG=latest shell> MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=Secret-123 shell> docker run \ --name=${CONTAINER_NAME} \ --detach \ --env=MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD} \ ${CONTAINER_IMAGE}:${TAG} shell> docker stop ${CONTAINER_NAME} shell> docker rm ${CONTAINER_NAME}
Run a MySQL Server Enterprise Edition container shell> CONTAINER_NAME=mysql-ee shell> CONTAINER_IMAGE=store/oracle/mysql-enterprise-server shell> TAG=5.7 shell> MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=Secret-123 shell> docker run \ --name=${CONTAINER_NAME} \ --detach \ --env=MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD} \ ${CONTAINER_IMAGE}:${TAG} shell> docker ps --all CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 0cb4e6a8a621 store/oracle/mysql-enterprise-server:5.7 "/entrypoint.sh my..." 37 seconds ago Up 36 seconds (healthy) 3306/tcp, 33060/tcp mysql-ee 1832b98da6ef mysql:latest "docker-entrypoint..." 6 minutes ago Up 6 minutes 3306/tcp mysql 60d7b6de7ed1 mariadb:latest "docker-entrypoint..." 21 minutes ago Up 21 minutes 3306/tcp mariadb

All my 3 docker containers are currently running as root:

shell> ps -ef | grep docker root 13177 1 20:20 ? 00:00:44 /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd:// root 13186 13177 20:20 ? 00:00:04 docker-containerd -l unix:///var/run/docker/libcontainerd/docker-containerd.sock --metrics-interval=0 --start-timeout 2m --state-dir /var/run/docker/libcontainerd/containerd --shim docker-containerd-shim --runtime docker-runc root 24004 13186 21:41 ? 00:00:00 docker-containerd-shim 60d7b6de7ed1ff62b67e66c6effce0094fd60e9565ede65fa34e188b636c54ec /var/run/docker/libcontainerd/60d7b6de7ed1ff62b67e66c6effce0094fd60e9565ede65fa34e188b636c54ec docker-runc root 26593 13186 21:56 ? 00:00:00 docker-containerd-shim 1832b98da6ef7459c33181e9b9ddd89a4136c3b2676335bcbbb533389cbf6219 /var/run/docker/libcontainerd/1832b98da6ef7459c33181e9b9ddd89a4136c3b2676335bcbbb533389cbf6219 docker-runc root 27714 13186 22:02 ? 00:00:00 docker-containerd-shim 0cb4e6a8a62103b66164ccddd028217bb4012d8a6aad1f62d3ed6ae71e1a38b4 /var/run/docker/libcontainerd/0cb4e6a8a62103b66164ccddd028217bb4012d8a6aad1f62d3ed6ae71e1a38b4 docker-runc

But the user running the process IN the container is not root:

shell> docker exec \ --interactive \ --tty \ ${CONTAINER_NAME} \ grep ^Uid /proc/1/status Uid: 27 27 27 27 shell> docker exec \ --interactive \ --tty \ ${CONTAINER_NAME} \ bash -c "id 27" uid=27(mysql) gid=27(mysql) groups=27(mysql)
Run a Docker container from mysql user shell> id uid=1001(mysql) gid=1001(mysql) groups=1001(mysql) shell> docker images Got permission denied while trying to connect to the Docker daemon socket at unix:///var/run/docker.sock: Get http://%2Fvar%2Frun%2Fdocker.sock/v1.32/images/json: dial unix /var/run/docker.sock: connect: permission denied shell> sudo adduser mysql docker Adding user `mysql' to group `docker' ... Adding user mysql to group docker Done.
Taxonomy upgrade extras: dockermysqlmariadb

MariaDB master/master GTID based replication with keepalived VIP

Sat, 2017-11-11 11:29

Some of our customers still want to have old-style MariaDB master/master replication clusters. Time goes by, new technologies appear but some old stuff still remains.

The main problem in a master/master replication set-up is to make the service highly available for the application (applications typically cannot deal with more than one point-of-contact). This can be achieved with a load balancer (HAproxy, Galera Load Balancer (GLB), ProxySQL or MaxScale) in front of the MariaDB master/master replication cluster. But the load balancer by it-self should also become highly available. And this is typically achieved by a virtual IP (VIP) in front of one of the load balancers. To make operations of the VIP more handy the VIP is controlled by a service like keepalived or corosync.

Because I like simple solutions (I am a strong believer in the KISS principle) I thought about avoiding the load balancer in the middle and attach the VIP directly to the master/master replication servers and let them to be controlled by keepalived as well.

Important: A master/master replication set-up is vulnerable to split-brain situations. Neither keepalived nor the master/master replication helps you to avoid conflicts and in any way to prevent this situation. If you are sensitive to split-brain situations you should look for Galera Cluster. Keepalived is made for stateless services like load balancers, etc. but not databases.

Set-up a MariaDB master/master replication cluster

Because most of the Linux distributions have a bit old versions of software delivered we use the MariaDB 10.2 repository from the MariaDB website:

# # /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB-10.2.repo # # MariaDB 10.2 CentOS repository list - created 2017-11-08 20:32 UTC # http://downloads.mariadb.org/mariadb/repositories/ # [mariadb] name = MariaDB baseurl = http://yum.mariadb.org/10.2/centos7-amd64 gpgkey=https://yum.mariadb.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-MariaDB gpgcheck=1

Then we install the MariaDB server and start it:

shell> yum makecache shell> yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client shell> systemctl start mariadb shell> systemctl enabled mariadb

For the MariaDB master/master replication set-up configuration we use the following parameters:

# # /etc/my.cnf # [mysqld] server_id = 1 # 2 on the other node log_bin = binlog-m1 # binlog-m2 on the other node log_slave_updates = 1 gtid_domain_id = 1 # 2 on the other node gtid_strict_mode = On auto_increment_increment = 2 auto_increment_offset = 1 # 2 on the other node read_only = On # super_read_only for MySQL 5.7 and newer

Then we close the master/master replication ring according to: Starting with empty server.

mariadb> SET GLOBAL gtid_slave_pos = ""; mariadb> CHANGE MASTER TO master_host="192.168.56.101", master_user="replication" , master_use_gtid=current_pos; mariadb> START SLAVE;
Installing keepalived

Literature:


The next step is to install and configure keepalived. This can be done as follows:

shell> yum install keepalived shell> systemctl enable keepalived

Important: In my tests I got crashes and core dumps with keepalived which disappeared after a full upgrade of CentOS 7.

Configuring keepalived

The most important part is the keepalived configuration file:

# # /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf # global_defs { notification_email { root@localhost dba@example.com } notification_email_from root@master1 # master2 on the other node smtp_server localhost 25 router_id MARIADB_MM enable_script_security } # Health checks vrrp_script chk_mysql { script "/usr/sbin/pidof mysqld" weight 2 # Is relevant for the diff in priority interval 1 # every ... seconds timeout 3 # script considered failed after ... seconds fall 3 # number of failures for K.O. rise 1 # number of success for OK } vrrp_script chk_failover { script "/etc/keepalived/chk_failover.sh" weight -4 # Is relevant for the diff in priority interval 1 # every ... seconds timeout 1 # script considered failed after ... seconds fall 1 # number of failures for K.O. rise 1 # number of success for OK } # Main configuration vrrp_instance VI_MM_VIP { state MASTER # BACKUP on the other side interface enp0s9 # private heartbeat interface priority 100 # Higher means: elected first (BACKUP: 99) virtual_router_id 42 # ID for all nodes of Cluster group debug 0 # 0 .. 4, seems not to work? unicast_src_ip 192.168.56.101 # Our private IP address unicast_peer { 192.168.56.102 # Peers private IP address } # For keepalived communication authentication { auth_type PASS auth_pass Secr3t! } # VIP to move around virtual_ipaddress { 192.168.1.99/24 dev enp0s8 # public interface for VIP } # Check health of local system. See vrrp_script above. track_script { chk_mysql # If File /etc/keepalived/failover is touched failover is triggered # Similar can be reached when priority is lowered followed by a reload chk_failover } # When node becomes MASTER this script is triggered notify_master "/etc/keepalived/keepalived_master.sh --user=root --password= --wait=yes --variable=read_only" # When node becomes SLAVE this script is triggered notify_backup "/etc/keepalived/keepalived_backup.sh --user=root --password= --kill=yes --variable=read_only" # Possibly fault and stop should also call keepalived_backup.sh to be on the safe side... notify_fault "/etc/keepalived/keepalived_fault.sh arg1 arg2" notify_stop "/etc/keepalived/keepalived_stop.sh arg1 arg2" # ANY state transit is triggered notify /etc/keepalived/keepalived_notify.sh smtp_alert # send notification during state transit }

With the command:

shell> systemctl restart keepalived

the service is started and/or the configuration is reloaded.

The scripts we used in the configuration file are the following:

chk_failover.sh keepalived_backup.sh keepalived_fault.sh keepalived_master.sh keepalived_notify.sh keepalived_stop.sh
#!/bin/bash # # /etc/keepalived/keepalived_notify.sh # TYPE=${1} NAME=${2} STATE=${3} PRIORITY=${4} TS=$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H:%M:%S') LOG=/etc/keepalived/keepalived_notify.log echo $TS $0 $@ >>${LOG}
#!/bin/bash # # /etc/keepalived/chk_failover.sh # /usr/bin/stat /etc/keepalived/failover 2>/dev/null 1>&2 if [ ${?} -eq 0 ] ; then exit 1 else exit 0 fi

To make MariaDB master/master replication more robust against replication problems we took the following (configurable) actions on the database side:

Getting the MASTER role:

  • Waiting for catch-up replication
  • Make the MariaDB instance read/write

Getting the BACKUP role:

  • Make the MariaDB instance read-only
  • Kill all open connections

Testing scenarios

The following scenarios where tested under load (insert_test.sh):

  • Intentional fail-over for maintenance: shell> touch /etc/keepalived/failover shell> rm -f /etc/keepalived/failover
  • Stopping keepalived: shell> systemctl stop keepalived shell> systemctl start keepalived
  • Stopping MariaDB node: shell> systemctl stop mariadb shell> systemctl start mariadb
  • Reboot server: shell> reboot
  • Simulation of split-brain: shell> ip link set enp0s9 down shell> ip link set enp0s9 up

Problems

Problems we faced during set-up and testing were:

  • SElinux/AppArmor
  • Firewall

Keepalived controlling 2 virtual IPs

A second scenario we wanted to build is a MariaDB master/master GTID based replication cluster with 2 VIP addresses. This is to achieve either a read-only VIP and a read/write VIP or to have half of the load on one master and half of the load on the other master:

For this scenario we used the same scripts but a slightly different keepalived configuration:

# # /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf # global_defs { notification_email { root@localhost dba@example.com } notification_email_from root@master1 # master2 on the other node smtp_server localhost 25 router_id MARIADB_MM enable_script_security } # Health checks vrrp_script chk_mysql { script "/usr/sbin/pidof mysqld" weight 2 # Is relevant for the diff in priority interval 1 # every ... seconds timeout 3 # script considered failed after ... seconds fall 3 # number of failures for K.O. rise 1 # number of success for OK } vrrp_script chk_failover { script "/etc/keepalived/chk_failover.sh" weight -4 # Is relevant for the diff in priority interval 1 # every ... seconds timeout 1 # script considered failed after ... seconds fall 1 # number of failures for K.O. rise 1 # number of success for OK } # Main configuration vrrp_instance VI_MM_VIP1 { state MASTER # BACKUP on the other side interface enp0s9 # private heartbeat interface priority 100 # Higher means: elected first (BACKUP: 99) virtual_router_id 42 # ID for all nodes of Cluster group unicast_src_ip 192.168.56.101 # Our private IP address unicast_peer { 192.168.56.102 # Peers private IP address } # For keepalived communication authentication { auth_type PASS auth_pass Secr3t! } # VIP to move around virtual_ipaddress { 192.168.1.99/24 dev enp0s8 # public interface for VIP } # Check health of local system. See vrrp_script above. track_script { chk_mysql chk_failover } # ANY state transit is triggered notify /etc/keepalived/keepalived_notify.sh smtp_alert # send notification during state transit } vrrp_instance VI_MM_VIP2 { state BACKUP # MASTER on the other side interface enp0s9 # private heartbeat interface priority 99 # Higher means: elected first (MASTER: 100) virtual_router_id 43 # ID for all nodes of Cluster group unicast_src_ip 192.168.56.101 # Our private IP address unicast_peer { 192.168.56.102 # Peers private IP address } # For keepalived communication authentication { auth_type PASS auth_pass Secr3t! } # VIP to move around virtual_ipaddress { 192.168.1.98/24 dev enp0s8 # public interface for VIP } # Check health of local system. See vrrp_script above. track_script { chk_mysql chk_failover } # ANY state transit is triggered notify /etc/keepalived/keepalived_notify.sh smtp_alert # send notification during state transit }
Taxonomy upgrade extras: mariadbmaster-masterkeepalivedVIPreplicationGTID

Galera Load Balancer the underestimated wallflower

Thu, 2017-09-21 15:25

There are some pretty sophisticated Load Balancers for Galera Clusters setups out in the market (ProxySQL, MaxScale, HAproxy, ...). They have many different exotic features. You can nearly do everything with them. But this comes at the cost of complexity. Non of them is simple any more.

A widely underestimated Load Balancer solution for Galera Cluster setups is the Galera Load Balancer from Codership. It is an simple Load Balancer solution which serves all of our daily needs when it comes to Galera Cluster. Unfortunately this product is not much promoted by the software vendor himself.

Installation of Galera Load Balancer

This starts with the installation. There are no packages ready to install. You have to compile Galera Load Balancer yourself. FromDual provides some compiled packages or can help you building and installing it.

You can get the Galera Load Balancer sources from Github. The binaries are built straight forward:

shell> git clone https://github.com/codership/glb shell> cd glb/ shell> ./bootstrap.sh shell> ./configure shell> make shell> make install

If you prefer a binary tar ball as I do, you can run the following commands instead of make install:

shell> TARGET=glb-1.0.1-linux-$(uname -m) shell> mkdir -p ${TARGET}/sbin ${TARGET}/lib ${TARGET}/share/glb shell> cp src/glbd ${TARGET}/sbin/ shell> cp src/.libs/libglb.a src/.libs/libglb.so* ${TARGET}/lib/ shell> cp files/* ${TARGET}/share/glb/ shell> cp README NEWS COPYING CONTRIBUTORS.txt CONTRIBUTOR_AGREEMENT.txt ChangeLog BUGS AUTHORS shell> tar czf ${TARGET}.tar.gz ${TARGET} shell> rm -rf ${TARGET}
Configuration of Galera Load Balancer

The Galera Load Balancer is configured in a file called glbd which must be located under /etc/sysconfig/gldb (Red Hat and its derivatives) or /etc/default/glbd (Debian and its derivatives). I did not find any option to tell Galera Load Balancer where to search for a configuration file.

The Galera Load Balancer parameters are documented here.

Starting and Stopping Galera Load Balancer

This means for me I have to specify all my parameters on the command line:

product/glb/sbin/glbd --threads 8 --max_conn 500 \ --round --fifo /home/mysql/run/glbd.fifo --control 127.0.0.1:3333 \ 127.0.0.1:3306 \ 192.168.1.1:3306:1 192.168.1.2:3306:2 192.168.1.3:3306:1

An equivalent configuration file would look as follows:

# # /etc/sysconfig/glbd.cfg # LISTEN_ADDR="127.0.0.1:3306" CONTROL_ADDR="127.0.0.1:3333" CONTROL_FIFO="/home/mysql/run/glbd.fifo" THREADS="8" MAX_CONN="500" DEFAULT_TARGETS="192.168.1.1:3306:1 192.168.1.2:3306:2 192.168.1.3:3306:1" OTHER_OPTIONS="--round"
Stopping Galera Load Balancer is simple: killall glbd
Galera Load Balancer operations

Beside starting and stopping Galera Load Balancer you also want to look into it. This can be done with the following 2 commands:

echo getinfo | nc -q 1 127.0.0.1 3333 echo getstats | nc -q 1 127.0.0.1 3333

Or if you want to have it in a more top/vmstat like style:

watch -n 1 "echo getstats | nc -q 1 127.0.0.1 3333" watch -n 1 -d "echo getinfo | nc -q 1 127.0.0.1 3333"

More interesting are operations like draining and undraining a Galera Cluster node from the Galera Load Balancer. To drain a Galera Cluster node for example for maintenance (kernel upgrade?) you can run the following command:

echo "192.168.1.2:3306:0" | nc 127.0.0.1 3333

To undrain the node again it works like this:

echo "192.168.1.2:3306:2" | nc 127.0.0.1 3333

Unfortunately Galera Load Balancer does not memorize the weight (:2).

If you want to remove or add a node from/to the Galera Load Balancer this works as follows:

echo "192.168.1.2:3306:-1" | nc 127.0.0.1 3333 echo "192.168.1.2:3306:1" | nc 127.0.0.1 3333

Further Galera Load Balancer operation tasks you can find in the documentation.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: Galera Clusterglbload balancerOperations

Find evil developer habits with log_queries_not_using_indexes

Wed, 2017-09-20 16:00

Recently I switched on the MariaDB slow query logging flag log_queries_not_using_indexes just for curiosity on one of our customers systems:

mariadb> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'log_quer%'; +-------------------------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +-------------------------------+-------+ | log_queries_not_using_indexes | OFF | +-------------------------------+-------+ mariadb> SET GLOBAL log_queries_not_using_indexes = ON;

A tail -f on the MariaDB Slow Query Log caused a huge flickering on my screen.
I got to see about 5 times per second the following statement sequence in the Slow Query Log:

# User@Host: app_admin[app_admin] @ [192.168.1.42] Id: 580195 # Query_time: 0.091731 Lock_time: 0.000028 Rows_sent: 273185 Rows_examined: 273185 SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID() FROM `placeholder`; # Query_time: 0.002858 Lock_time: 0.000043 Rows_sent: 6856 Rows_examined: 6856 SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID() FROM `data`;

So at least 5 times 95 ms (5 x (92 + 3) = 475 ms) per 1000 ms (48%) where spent in these 2 statements which are running quite fast but do not use an index (long_query_time was set to 2 seconds).

So I estimate, that this load job can be speed up at least by factor 2 when using the LAST_INSERT_ID() function correctly not considering the possible reduction of network traffic (throughput and response time).

To show the problem I made a little test case:

mariadb> INSERT INTO test VALUES (NULL, 'Some data', NULL); mariadb> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID() from test; +------------------+ | LAST_INSERT_ID() | +------------------+ | 1376221 | ... | 1376221 | +------------------+ 1048577 rows in set (0.27 sec)

The response time of this query will linearly grow with the amount of data as long as they fit into memory and the response time will explode as soon as the table does not fit into memory any more. In addition the network traffic would be reduced by about 8 Mbyte (1 Mio rows x BIGINT UNSIGNED (64-bit) + some header per row?) per second (6-8% of the network bandwidth of a 1 Gbit network link).

shell> ifconfig lo | grep bytes RX bytes:2001930826 (2.0 GB) TX bytes:2001930826 (2.0 GB) shell> ifconfig lo | grep bytes RX bytes:2027289745 (2.0 GB) TX bytes:2027289745 (2.0 GB)

The correct way of doing the query would be:

mariadb> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(); +------------------+ | last_insert_id() | +------------------+ | 1376221 | +------------------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The response time is below 10 ms.

So why is the first query taking so long an consuming so many resources? To get an answer to this question the MariaDB Optimizer can tell us more with the Query Execution Plan (QEP):

mariadb> EXPLAIN SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID() FROM test; +------+-------------+-------+-------+---------------+---------+---------+------+---------+-------------+ | id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra | +------+-------------+-------+-------+---------------+---------+---------+------+---------+-------------+ | 1 | SIMPLE | test | index | NULL | PRIMARY | 4 | NULL | 1048577 | Using index | +------+-------------+-------+-------+---------------+---------+---------+------+---------+-------------+ mariadb> EXPLAIN FORMAT=JSON SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID() FROM test; { "query_block": { "select_id": 1, "table": { "table_name": "test", "access_type": "index", "key": "PRIMARY", "key_length": "4", "used_key_parts": ["id"], "rows": 1048577, "filtered": 100, "using_index": true } } }

The database does a Full Index Scan (FIS, other call it a Index Fast Full Scan (IFFS)) on the Primary Key (column id).

The Query Execution Plan of the second query looks as follows:

mariadb> EXPLAIN SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(); +------+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------------+ | id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key | key_len | ref | rows | Extra | +------+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------------+ | 1 | SIMPLE | NULL | NULL | NULL | NULL | NULL | NULL | NULL | No tables used | +------+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------------+ mariadb> EXPLAIN FORMAT=JSON SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(); { "query_block": { "select_id": 1, "table": { "message": "No tables used" } } }
Taxonomy upgrade extras: query tuningOptimizerindexindex scanlast_insert_idexplainslowlog

Storing BLOBs in the database

Fri, 2017-06-30 14:18

We have sometimes discussions with our customers whether to store LOBs (Large Objects) in the database or not. To not rephrase the arguments again and again I have summarized them in the following lines.

The following items are more or less valid for all large data types (BLOB, TEXT and theoretically also for JSON and GIS columns) stored in a MySQL or MariaDB (or any other relational) database.

The idea of a relational table based data-store is to store structured data (numbers, data and short character strings) to have a quick write and read access to them.

And yes, you can also store other things like videos, huge texts (PDF, emails) or similar in a RDBMS but they are principally not designed for such a job and thus non optimal for the task. Software vendors implement such features not mainly because it makes sense but because users want it and the vendors want to attract users (or their managers) with such features (USP, Unique Selling Proposition). Here also one of my Mantras: Use the right tool for the right task:

The main topics to discuss related to LOBs are: Operations, performance, economical reasons and technical limitations.

Disadvantages of storing LOBs in the database
  • The database will grow fast. Operations will become more costly and complicated.
  • Backup and restore will become more costly and complicated for the admin because of the increased size caused by LOBs.
  • Backup and restore will take longer because of the same reason.
  • Database and table management functions (OPTIMIZE, ALTER, etc.) will take longer on big LOB tables.
  • Smaller databases need less RAM/disk space and are thus cheaper.
  • Smaller databases fit better into your RAM and are thus potentially faster (RAM vs disk access).
  • RDBMS are a relatively slow technology (compared to others). Reading LOBs from the database is significantly slower than reading LOBs from a filer for example.
  • LOBs stored in the database will spoil your database cache (InnoDB Buffer Pool) and thus possibly slow down other queries (does not necessarily happen with more sophisticated RBDMS).
  • LOB size limitation of 1 Gbyte in reality (max_allowed_packet, theoretically limit is at 4 Gbyte) for MySQL/MariaDB.
  • Expensive, fast database store (RAID-10, SSD) is wasted for something which can be stored better on a cheap slow file store (RAID-5, HDD).
  • It is programmatically often more complicated to get LOBs from a database than from a filer (depends on your libraries).

Advantages of storing LOBs in the database
  • Atomicity between data and LOB is guaranteed by transactions (is it really in MySQL/MariaDB?).
  • There are no dangling links (reference from data to LOB) between data and LOB.
  • Data and LOB are from the same point in time and can be included in the same backup.

Conclusion

So basically you have to balance the advantages vs. the disadvantages of storing LOBs in the database and decided what arguments are more important in your case.

If you have some more good arguments pro or contra storing LOBs in the database please let me know.

Literature

Check also various articles on Google.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: blobtextlobdesign

MySQL Enterprise Backup Incremental Cumulative and Differential Backup

Thu, 2017-05-11 17:20

Preparing the MySQL Enterprise Administrator Training I found that the MySQL Enterprise Backup Incremental Backup is not described very well. Thus I tried it out and wrote down this how-to:

Incremental Differential Backup

Full Backup mysqlbackup --user=root --backup-dir=/tape/full backup-and-apply-log grep end_lsn /tape/full/meta/backup_variables.txt end_lsn=2583666
Incremental Backups mysqlbackup --user=root --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc1 --start-lsn=2583666 --incremental backup grep end_lsn /tape/inc1/meta/backup_variables.txt end_lsn=2586138 mysqlbackup --user=root --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc2 --start-lsn=2586138 --incremental backup grep end_lsn /tape/inc2/meta/backup_variables.txt end_lsn=2589328 mysqlbackup --user=root --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc3 --start-lsn=2589328 --incremental backup grep end_lsn /tape/inc3/meta/backup_variables.txt end_lsn=2592519
Binary Log Backups cp /var/lib/binlog/binlog.* /tape/binlog/
Restore

This step will modify the original full backup!

mysqlbackup --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc1 --backup-dir=/tape/full apply-incremental-backup mysqlbackup --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc2 --backup-dir=/tape/full apply-incremental-backup mysqlbackup --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc3 --backup-dir=/tape/full apply-incremental-backup mysqlbackup --user=root --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --backup-dir=/tape/full copy-back
Point-in-Time-Recovery grep binlog_position /tape/inc3/meta/backup_variables.txt /tape/inc3/meta/backup_variables.txt:binlog_position=binlog.000001:7731 cd /tape/binlog mysqlbinlog --disable-log-bin --start-position=7731 binlog.000001 | mysql -uroot
Incremental Cumulative Backup

Full Backup mysqlbackup --user=root --backup-dir=/tape/full backup-and-apply-log grep end_lsn /tape/full/meta/backup_variables.txt end_lsn=2602954 Incremental Backups mysqlbackup --user=root --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc1 --start-lsn=2602954 --incremental backup mysqlbackup --user=root --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc2 --start-lsn=2602954 --incremental backup mysqlbackup --user=root --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc3 --start-lsn=2602954 --incremental backup
Binary Log Backups cp /home/mysql/database/mysql-5.7/binlog/binlog.* /tape/binlog/
Restore

This step will modify the original full backup!

mysqlbackup --incremental-backup-dir=/tape/inc3 --backup-dir=/tape/full apply-incremental-backup mysqlbackup --user=root --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --backup-dir=/tape/full copy-back
Point-in-Time-Recovery grep binlog_position /tape/*/meta/backup_variables.txt /tape/inc3/meta/backup_variables.txt:binlog_position=binlog.000001:7731 cd /tape/binlog mysqlbinlog --disable-log-bin --start-position=7731 binlog.000001 | mysql -uroot

I very much dislike that during my restore the backup is modified. So if I do a mistake during restore my backup is gone and I am doomed.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: BackupRestoreMySQL Enterprise Backupenterpriseincrementalcumulativedifferential

MySQL and MariaDB authentication against pam_unix

Mon, 2017-02-13 18:02

The PAM authentication plug-in is an extension included in MySQL Enterprise Edition (since 5.5) and in MariaDB (since 5.2).

MySQL authentication against pam_unix

Check if plug-in is available:

# ll lib/plugin/auth*so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 42937 Sep 18 2015 lib/plugin/authentication_pam.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 25643 Sep 18 2015 lib/plugin/auth.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 12388 Sep 18 2015 lib/plugin/auth_socket.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 25112 Sep 18 2015 lib/plugin/auth_test_plugin.so

Install PAM plug-in:

mysql> INSTALL PLUGIN authentication_pam SONAME 'authentication_pam.so';

Check plug-in information:

mysql> SELECT * FROM information_schema.plugins WHERE plugin_name = 'authentication_pam'\G *************************** 1. row *************************** PLUGIN_NAME: authentication_pam PLUGIN_VERSION: 1.1 PLUGIN_STATUS: ACTIVE PLUGIN_TYPE: AUTHENTICATION PLUGIN_TYPE_VERSION: 1.1 PLUGIN_LIBRARY: authentication_pam.so PLUGIN_LIBRARY_VERSION: 1.7 PLUGIN_AUTHOR: Georgi Kodinov PLUGIN_DESCRIPTION: PAM authentication plugin PLUGIN_LICENSE: PROPRIETARY LOAD_OPTION: ON

It seems like this set-up is persisted and survives a database restart because of the mysql schema table:

mysql> SELECT * FROM mysql.plugin; +--------------------+-----------------------+ | name | dl | +--------------------+-----------------------+ | authentication_pam | authentication_pam.so | +--------------------+-----------------------+

Configuring PAM on Ubuntu/Debian:

#%PAM-1.0 # # /etc/pam.d/mysql # @include common-auth @include common-account @include common-session-noninteractive

Create the database user matching to the O/S user:

mysql> CREATE USER 'oli'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH authentication_pam AS 'mysql' ; mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO 'oli'@'localhost';

Verifying user in the database:

mysql> SELECT user, host, authentication_string FROM mysql.user WHERE user = 'oli'; +-----------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+ | user | host | authentication_string | +-----------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+ | oli | localhost | mysql | +-----------+-----------+-------------------------------------------+ mysql> SHOW CREATE USER 'oli'@'localhost'; +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | CREATE USER for oli@localhost | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | CREATE USER 'oli'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH 'authentication_pam' AS 'mysql' REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Connection tests:

# mysql --user=oli --host=localhost ERROR 2059 (HY000): Authentication plugin 'mysql_clear_password' cannot be loaded: plugin not enabled # mysql --user=oli --host=localhost --enable-cleartext-plugin --password=wrong ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'oli'@'localhost' (using password: YES) # tail /var/log/auth.log Feb 13 15:15:14 chef unix_chkpwd[31600]: check pass; user unknown Feb 13 15:15:14 chef unix_chkpwd[31600]: password check failed for user (oli) # mysql --user=oli --host=localhost --enable-cleartext-plugin --password=rigth ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'oli'@'localhost' (using password: YES) # tail /var/log/auth.log Feb 13 15:15:40 chef unix_chkpwd[31968]: check pass; user unknown Feb 13 15:15:40 chef unix_chkpwd[31968]: password check failed for user (oli)

Some research led to the following result: The non privileged mysql user is not allowed to access the file /etc/shadow thus it should be added to the group shadow to make it work:

# ll /sbin/unix_chkpwd -rwxr-sr-x 1 root shadow 35536 Mar 16 2016 /sbin/unix_chkpwd # usermod -a -G shadow mysql

Connection tests:

# mysql --user=oli --host=localhost --enable-cleartext-plugin --password=rigth mysql> SELECT USER(), CURRENT_USER(), @@proxy_user; +---------------+----------------+--------------+ | USER() | CURRENT_USER() | @@proxy_user | +---------------+----------------+--------------+ | oli@localhost | oli@localhost | NULL | +---------------+----------------+--------------+
MariaDB authentication against pam_unix

Check if plug-in is available:

# ll lib/plugin/auth*so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 12462 Nov 4 14:37 lib/plugin/auth_0x0100.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 33039 Nov 4 14:37 lib/plugin/auth_gssapi_client.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 80814 Nov 4 14:37 lib/plugin/auth_gssapi.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 19015 Nov 4 14:37 lib/plugin/auth_pam.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 13028 Nov 4 14:37 lib/plugin/auth_socket.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 23521 Nov 4 14:37 lib/plugin/auth_test_plugin.so

Install PAM plug-in:

mysql> INSTALL SONAME 'auth_pam';

Check plug-in information:

mysql> SELECT * FROM information_schema.plugins WHERE plugin_name = 'pam'\G *************************** 1. row *************************** PLUGIN_NAME: pam PLUGIN_VERSION: 1.0 PLUGIN_STATUS: ACTIVE PLUGIN_TYPE: AUTHENTICATION PLUGIN_TYPE_VERSION: 2.0 PLUGIN_LIBRARY: auth_pam.so PLUGIN_LIBRARY_VERSION: 1.11 PLUGIN_AUTHOR: Sergei Golubchik PLUGIN_DESCRIPTION: PAM based authentication PLUGIN_LICENSE: GPL LOAD_OPTION: ON PLUGIN_MATURITY: Stable PLUGIN_AUTH_VERSION: 1.0

Configuring PAM on Ubuntu/Debian:

#%PAM-1.0 # # /etc/pam.d/mysql # @include common-auth @include common-account @include common-session-noninteractive

Create the database user matching to the O/S user:

mysql> CREATE USER 'oli'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED VIA pam USING 'mariadb' ; mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON test.* TO 'oli'@'localhost';

Verifying user in the database:

mysql> SELECT user, host, authentication_string FROM mysql.user WHERE user = 'oli'; +------+-----------+-----------------------+ | user | host | authentication_string | +------+-----------+-----------------------+ | oli | localhost | mariadb | +------+-----------+-----------------------+

Connection tests:

# mysql --user=oli --host=localhost --password=wrong ERROR 2059 (HY000): Authentication plugin 'dialog' cannot be loaded: /usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin/dialog.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory # tail /var/log/auth.log Feb 13 17:11:16 chef mysqld: pam_unix(mariadb:auth): unexpected response from failed conversation function Feb 13 17:11:16 chef mysqld: pam_unix(mariadb:auth): conversation failed Feb 13 17:11:16 chef mysqld: pam_unix(mariadb:auth): auth could not identify password for [oli] Feb 13 17:11:16 chef mysqld: pam_winbind(mariadb:auth): getting password (0x00000388) Feb 13 17:11:16 chef mysqld: pam_winbind(mariadb:auth): Could not retrieve user's password # mysql --user=oli --host=localhost --password=wrong --plugin-dir=$PWD/lib/plugin ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'oli'@'localhost' (using password: NO) Feb 13 17:11:30 chef mysqld: pam_unix(mariadb:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=1001 euid=1001 tty= ruser= rhost= user=oli Feb 13 17:11:30 chef mysqld: pam_winbind(mariadb:auth): getting password (0x00000388) Feb 13 17:11:30 chef mysqld: pam_winbind(mariadb:auth): pam_get_item returned a password Feb 13 17:11:30 chef mysqld: pam_winbind(mariadb:auth): request wbcLogonUser failed: WBC_ERR_AUTH_ERROR, PAM error: PAM_USER_UNKNOWN (10), NTSTATUS: NT_STATUS_NO_SUCH_USER, Error message was: No such user

Add mysql user to the shadow group:

# ll /sbin/unix_chkpwd -rwxr-sr-x 1 root shadow 35536 Mar 16 2016 /sbin/unix_chkpwd # usermod -a -G shadow mysql

Connection tests:

# mysql --user=oli --host=localhost --password=right --plugin-dir=$PWD/lib/plugin mysql> SELECT USER(), CURRENT_USER(), @@proxy_user; +---------------+----------------+--------------+ | USER() | CURRENT_USER() | @@proxy_user | +---------------+----------------+--------------+ | oli@localhost | oli@localhost | NULL | +---------------+----------------+--------------+
Taxonomy upgrade extras: authenticationpamsecuritypluginplug-in

Is your MySQL software Cluster ready?

Fri, 2017-01-27 18:19

When we do Galera Cluster consulting we always discuss with the customer if his software is Galera Cluster ready. This basically means: Can the software cope with the Galera Cluster specifics?

If it is a software product developed outside of the company we recommend to ask the software vendor if the software supports Galera Cluster or not.

We typically see 3 different answers:

  • We do not know. Then they are at least honest.
  • Yes we do support Galera Cluster. Then they hopefully know what they are talking about but you cannot be sure and should test carefully.
  • No we do not. Then they most probably know what they are talking about.

If the software is developed in-house it becomes a bit more tricky because the responsibility for this statement has to be taken by you or some of your colleagues.

Thus it is good to know what are the characteristics and the limitations of a Cluster like Galera Cluster for MySQL.

Most of the Galera restrictions an limitation you can find here.

DDL statements cause TOI operations

DDL and DCL statements (like CREATE, ALTER, TRUNCATE, OPTIMIZE, DROP, GRANT, REVOKE, etc.) are executed by default in Total Order Isolation (TOI) by the Online Schema Upgrade (OSU) method. To achieve this schema upgrade consistently Galera does a global Cluster lock.

It is obvious that those DDL operations should be short and not very frequent to not always block your Galera Cluster. So changing your table structure must be planned and done carefully to not impact your daily business operation.

But there are also some not so obvious DDL statements causing TOI operations (and Cluster locks).

  • TRUNCATE TABLE ... This operation is NOT a DML statement (like DELETE) but a DDL statement and thus does a TOI operation with a Cluster lock.
  • CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS ... This operation is clearly a DDL statement but one might think that it does NOT a TOI operation if the table already exists. This is wrong. This statement causes always a TOI operation if the table is there or not does not matter. If you run this statement very frequent this potentially causes troubles to your Galera Cluster.
  • CREATE TABLE younameit_tmp ... The intention is clear: The developer wants to create a temporary table. But this is NOT a temporary table but just a normal table called _tmp. So it causes as TOI operation as well. What you should do in this case is to create a real temporary table like this: CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE yournameit_tmp ... This DDL statement is only executed locally and will not cause a TOI operation.

How to check?

You can check the impact of this problem with the following sequence of statements:

mysql> SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'Com_create_table%'; +------------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +------------------+-------+ | Com_create_table | 4 | +------------------+-------+ mysql> CREATE TABLE t1_tmp (id INT); mysql> SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'Com_create_table%'; +------------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +------------------+-------+ | Com_create_table | 5 | --> Also changes on the Slave nodes! +------------------+-------+ mysql> CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE t2_tmp (id INT); mysql> SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'Com_create_table%'; +------------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +------------------+-------+ | Com_create_table | 6 | --> Does NOT change on the Slave nodes! +------------------+-------+ mysql> CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS t1_tmp (id INT); +------------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +------------------+-------+ | Com_create_table | 7 | --> Also changes on the Slave nodes! +------------------+-------+
Find out in advance

If you want to find out before migrating to Galera Cluster if you are hit by this problem or not you can either run:

mysql> SHOW GLOBAL STATUS WHERE variable_name LIKE 'Com_create%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Com_alter%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Com_drop%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Com_truncate%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Com_grant%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Com_revoke%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Com_optimize%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Com_rename%' OR variable_name LIKE 'Uptime' ; +----------------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +----------------------+-------+ | Com_create_db | 2 | | Com_create_table | 6 | | Com_optimize | 1 | | Uptime | 6060 | +----------------------+-------+

Or if you want to know exactly who was running the query from the PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA:

SELECT user, host, SUBSTR(event_name, 15) AS event_name, count_star FROM performance_schema.events_statements_summary_by_account_by_event_name WHERE count_star > 0 AND ( event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/create%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/alter%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/drop%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/rename%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/grant%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/revoke%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/optimize%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/truncate%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/repair%' OR event_name LIKE 'statement/sql/check%' ) ; +------+-----------+--------------+------------+ | user | host | event_name | count_star | +------+-----------+--------------+------------+ | root | localhost | create_table | 4 | | root | localhost | create_db | 2 | | root | localhost | optimize | 1 | +------+-----------+--------------+------------+

If you need help to make your application Galera Cluster ready we will be glad to assist you.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: Galera ClusterTOIDDLcreatetemporary tableDCLdropaltertruncate

MySQL replication with filtering is dangerous

Thu, 2017-01-12 16:47

From time to time we see in customer engagements that MySQL Master/Slave replication is set-up doing schema or table level replication filtering. This can be done either on Master or on Slave. If filtering is done on the Master (by the binlog_{do|ignore}_db settings), the binary log becomes incomplete and cannot be used for a proper Point-in-Time-Recovery. Therefore FromDual recommends AGAINST this approach.

The replication filtering rules vary depending on the binary log format (ROW and STATEMENT) See also: How Servers Evaluate Replication Filtering Rules.

For reasons of data consistency between Master and Slave FromDual recommends to use only the binary log format ROW. This is also stated in the MySQL documentation: All changes can be replicated. This is the safest form of replication. Especially dangerous is binary log filtering with binary log format MIXED. This binary log format FromDual strongly discourages users to use.

The binary log format ROW affects only DML statements (UPDATE, INSERT, DELETE, etc.) but NOT DDL statements (CREATE, ALTER, DROP, etc.) and NOT DCL statements (CREATE, GRANT, REVOKE, DROP, etc.). So how are those statements replicated? They are replicated in STATEMENT binary log format even though binlog_format is set to ROW. This has the consequences that the binary log filtering rules of STATEMENT based replication and not the ones of ROW based replication apply when running one of those DDL or DCL statements.

This can easily cause problems. If you are lucky, they will cause the replication to break sooner or later, which you can detect and fix - but they may also cause inconsistencies between Master and Slave which may remain undetected for a long time.

Let us show what happens in 2 similar scenarios:

Scenario A: Filtering on mysql schema

On Slave we set the binary log filter as follows:

replicate_ignore_db = mysql

and verify it:

mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G ... Replicate_Ignore_DB: mysql ...

The intention of this filter setting is to not replicate user creations or modifications from Master to the Slave.

We verify on the Master, that binlog_format is set to the wanted value:

mysql> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'binlog_format'; +---------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +---------------+-------+ | binlog_format | ROW | +---------------+-------+

Now we do the following on the Master:

mysql> use mysql mysql> CREATE USER 'inmysql'@'%'; mysql> use test mysql> CREATE USER 'intest'@'%';

and verify the result on the Master:

mysql> SELECT user, host FROM mysql.user; +-------------+-----------+ | user | host | +-------------+-----------+ | inmysql | % | | intest | % | | mysql.sys | localhost | | root | localhost | +-------------+-----------+

and on the Slave:

mysql> SELECT user, host FROM mysql.user; +-------------+-----------+ | user | host | +-------------+-----------+ | intest | % | | mysql.sys | localhost | | root | localhost | +-------------+-----------+

We see, that the user intest was replicated and the user inmysql was not. And we have clearly an unwanted data inconsistency between Master and Slave.

If we want to drop the inmysql user some time later on the Master:

mysql> use myapp; mysql> DROP USER 'inmysql'@'%';

we get the following error message on the Slave and are wondering, why this user or the query appears on the Slave:

mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G ... Last_SQL_Errno: 1396 Last_SQL_Error: Error 'Operation DROP USER failed for 'inmysql'@'%'' on query. Default database: 'test'. Query: 'DROP USER 'inmysql'@'%'' ...

A similar problem happens when we connect to NO database on the Master as follows and change the users password:

shell> mysql -uroot mysql> SELECT DATABASE(); +------------+ | database() | +------------+ | NULL | +------------+ mysql> ALTER USER 'innone'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'secret';

This works perfectly on the Master. But what happens on the Slave:

mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G ... Last_SQL_Errno: 1396 Last_SQL_Error: Error 'Operation ALTER USER failed for 'innone'@'%'' on query. Default database: ''. Query: 'ALTER USER 'innone'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*14E65567ABDB5135D0CFD9A70B3032C179A49EE7'' ...

The Slave wants to tell us in a complicated way, that the user innone does not exist on the Slave...

Scenario B: Filtering on tmp or similar schema

An other scenario we have seen recently is that the customer is filtering out tables with temporary data located in the tmp schema. Similar scenarios are cache, session or log tables. He did it as follows on the Master:

mysql> use tmp; mysql> TRUNCATE TABLE tmp.test;

As he has learned in FromDual trainings he emptied the table with the TRUNCATE TABLE command instead of a DELETE FROM tmp.test command which is much less efficient than the TRUNCATE TABLE command. What he did not consider is, that the TRUNCATE TABLE command is a DDL command and not a DML command and thus the STATEMENT based replication filtering rules apply. His filtering rules on the Slave were as follows:

mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G ... Replicate_Ignore_DB: tmp ...

When we do the check on the Master we get an empty set as expected:

mysql> SELECT * FROM tmp.test; Empty set (0.00 sec)

When we add new data on the Master:

mysql> INSERT INTO tmp.test VALUES (NULL, 'new data', CURRENT_TIMESTAMP()); mysql> SELECT * FROM tmp.test; +----+-----------+---------------------+ | id | data | ts | +----+-----------+---------------------+ | 1 | new data | 2017-01-11 18:00:11 | +----+-----------+---------------------+

we get a different result set on the Slave:

mysql> SELECT * FROM tmp.test; +----+-----------+---------------------+ | id | data | ts | +----+-----------+---------------------+ | 1 | old data | 2017-01-11 17:58:55 | +----+-----------+---------------------+

and in addition the replication stops working with the following error:

mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G ... Last_Errno: 1062 Last_Error: Could not execute Write_rows event on table tmp.test; Duplicate entry '1' for key 'PRIMARY', Error_code: 1062; handler error HA_ERR_FOUND_DUPP_KEY; the event's master log laptop4_qa57master_binlog.000042, end_log_pos 1572 ...

See also our earlier bug report of a similar topic: Option "replicate_do_db" does not cause "create table" to replicate ('row' log)

Conclusion

Binary log filtering is extremely dangerous when you care about data consistency and thus FromDual recommends to avoid binary log filtering by all means. If you really have to do binary log filtering you should exactly know what you are doing, carefully test your set-up, check your application and your maintenance jobs and also review your future code changes regularly. Otherwise you risk data inconsistencies in your MySQL Master/Slave replication.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: replicationbinary logfilterfilteringrow filteringstatementbinlog_formatrow

MySQL and MariaDB variables inflation

Mon, 2016-12-12 21:43

MySQL is well known and widely spread because of its philosophy of Keep it Simple (KISS).

We recently had the discussion that with newer releases also MySQL and MariaDB relational databases becomes more and more complicated.

One indication for this trend is the number of MySQL server system variables and status variables.

In the following tables and graphs we compare the different releases since MySQL version 4.0:

mysql> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES; mysql> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'innodb%'; mysql> SHOW GLOBAL STATUS; mysql> SHOW GLOBAL STATUS LIKE 'innodb%';
VersionSystemIB Sys.StatusIB Stat.MySQL 4.0.3014322*133**0MySQL 4.1.2518926*164**0MySQL 5.0.962393625242MySQL 5.1.732773629142MySQL 5.5.513176031247MySQL 5.6.3143812034151MySQL 5.7.1549113135351MySQL 8.0.048812436351

* Use SHOW STATUS instead.
** Use SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS\G instead.

VersionSystemIB Sys.StatusIB Stat.MariaDB 5.1.443547230144MariaDB 5.2.103978632446MariaDB 5.5.4141910341399MariaDB 10.0.2153714745595MariaDB 10.1.18***589178517127MariaDB 10.2.2****58616448196

*** XtraDB 5.6
****InnoDB 5.7.14???

Taxonomy upgrade extras: mysqlvariablesstatusmariadb

New Features in MySQL and MariaDB

Tue, 2016-11-22 15:45

As you probably know MySQL is an Open Source product licensed under the GPL v2. The GPL grants you the right to not just read and understand the code of the product but also to use, modify AND redistribute the code as long as you follow the GPL rules.

This redistribution has happened in the past various times. But in the western hemisphere only 3 of these branches/forks of MySQL are of relevance for the majority of the MySQL users: Galera Cluster for MySQL, MariaDB (Server and Galera Cluster) and Percona Server (and XtraDB Cluster).

Now it happened what has to happen in nature: The different branches/forks start to diverge (following the marketing rule: differentiate yourself from your competitors). The biggest an most important divergence happens now between MySQL and MariaDB.

Recently a customer of FromDual claimed that there is no more progress in the MySQL Server development whereas the MariaDB Server does significant progress. I was wondering a bit how this statement could have been made. So I try to summarize the New Features which have been added since the beginning of the separation starting with MySQL 5.1.

It is important to know, that some parts of MySQL code are directly or in modified form ported to MariaDB whereas some MariaDB features were implemented in MySQL as well. So missing features in MariaDB or improvements in MySQL can possibly make it sooner or later also into MariaDB and vice versa. Further both forks were profiting significantly from old MySQL 6.0 code which was never really announced broadly.

Further to consider: Sun Microsystems acquired MySQL in January 2008 (MySQL 5.1.23 was out then and MySQL 5.2, 5.4 and 6.0 were in the queue) and Sun was acquired by Oracle in January 2010 (MySQL 5.1.43, MySQL 5.5.1 were out, MySQL 5.2, 5.4 and 6.0 were abandoned and MySQL 5.6 was in the queue).

MySQL 5.1 MariaDB 5.1 (link), 5.2 (link) and 5.3 (link)
  • Partitioning
  • Row-based replication
  • Plug-in API
  • Event scheduler.
  • Server log tables.
  • Upgrade program mysql_upgrade.
  • Improvements to INFORMATION_SCHEMA.
  • XML functions with Xpath support.

MariaDB 5.1

  • Storage Engines
    • Aria (Crash-safe MyISAM)
    • XtraDB plug-in (Branch of InnoDB)
    • PBXT (transactional Storage Engine)
    • Federated-X (replacement for Federated).
  • Performance
    • Faster CHECKSUM TABLE.
    • Character Set conversion improvement/elimination.
    • Speed-up of complex queries using Aria SE for temporary tables.
    • Optimizer: Table elimination.
  • Upgrade from MySQL 5.0 improved.
  • Better testing.
  • Microseconds precision in PROCESSLIST.

MariaDB 5.2

  • Storage Engines
    • OQGRAPH (Graph SE)
    • SphinxSE (Full-text search engine)
  • Performance
    • Segmented MyISAM key cache (instances)
    • Group Commit for Aria SE
  • Security
    • Pluggable Authentication
  • Virtual columns
  • Extended user statistics
  • Storage Engine specific CREATE TABLE
  • Enhancements to INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PLUGINS table

MariaDB 5.3

  • Performance
    • Subquery Optimization
      • Semi-join subquery optimizations
      • Non-semi-join optimizations
      • Subquery Cache
      • Subquery is not materialized any more in EXPLAIN
    • Optimization for derived tables and views
      • No early materialization of derived tables
      • Derived Table Merge optimization
      • Derived Table with Keys optimization
      • Fields of mergeable views and derived tables are involved in optimization
    • Disk access optimization
      • Index Condition Pushdown (ICP)
      • Multi-Range-Read optimization (MRR)
    • Join optimizations
      • Block-based Join Algorithms: Block Nested Loop (BNL) for outer joins, Block Hash Joins, Block Index Joins (Batched Key Access (BKA) Joins)
    • Index Merge improvements
  • Replication
    • Group Commit for Binary Log
    • Annotation of row-based replication events with the original SQL statement
    • Checksum for binlog events
    • Enhancements for START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT
    • Performance improvement for row-based replication for tables with no primary key
  • Handler Socket Interface included.
  • HANDLER READ works with prepared statements
  • Dynamic Column support for Handler Interface
  • Microsecond support
  • CAST extended
  • Windows performance improvements
  • New status variables
  • Progress reports for some operations
  • Enhanced KILL command
MySQL 5.5 (link) MariaDB 5.5 (link)
  • InnoDB
    • InnoDB Version 5.5
    • Default storage engine switched to InnoDB.
    • InnoDB fast INDEX DROP/CREATE feature added.
    • Multi-core scalability. Focus on InnoDB, especially locking and memory management.
    • Optimizing InnoDB I/O subsystem to more effective use of available I/O capacity.
  • Performance
    • MySQL Thread Pool plug-in (Enterprise)
  • Security
    • MySQL Audit plug-in (Enterprise)
    • MySQL pluggable authentication (Enterprise) for LDAP, Kerberos, PAM and Windows login
  • Replication
    • Semi-synchronous replication.
  • Partitioning
    • 2 new partition types (RANGE COLUMNS, LIST COLUMNS).
    • TRUNCATE PARTITION.
  • Proxy Users
  • Diagnostic improvements to better access execution an performance information including PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA, expanded SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS output and new status variables.
  • Supplementary Unicode characters (utf16, utf32, utf8mb4).
  • CACHE INDEX and LOAD INDEX INTO CACHE for partitioned MyISAM tables.
  • Condition Handling: SIGNAL and RESIGNAL.
  • Introduction of Metadata locking to prevent DDL statements from compromising transactions serializability.
  • IPv6 Support
  • XML enhancement LOAD_XML_INFILE.
  • Build chain switched to CMake to ease build on other platforms including Windows.
  • Deprecation and remove of features.
  • Storage Engines
    • SphinxSE updated to 2.0.4
    • PBXT Storage Engine is deprecated.
  • XtraDB
    • MariaDB uses XtraDB 5.5 as compiled in SE and InnoDB 5.5 as plug-in.
    • Extended Keys support for XtraDB
  • Performance
    • Thread pool plug-in
    • Non-blocking client API Library
  • Replication
    • Updates on P_S tables are not logged to binary log.
    • replicate_* variables are dynamically.
    • Skip_replication option
  • LIMIT ROWS EXAMINED
  • New status variables for features.
  • New plug-in to log SQL level errors.
MySQL 5.6 (link) MariaDB 10.0 (link)
  • InnoDB
    • InnoDB Version 5.6
    • InnoDB full-text search.
    • InnoDB transportable tablespace support
    • Different InnoDB pages size implementation (4k, 8k, 16k)
    • Improvement of InnoDB adaptive flushing algorithm to make I/O more efficient.
    • NoSQL style Memcached API to access InnoDB data.
    • InnoDB optimizer persistent statistics.
    • InnoDB read-only transactions.
    • Separating InnoDB UNDO tablespace from system tablespace.
    • Maximum InnoDB transaction log size increased from 4G to 512G.
    • InnoDB read-only capability for read-only media (CD, DVD, etc.)
    • InnoDB table compression.
    • New InnoDB meta data table in INFORMATION_SCHEMA.
    • InnoDB internal performance performance enhancements.
    • Better InnoDB deadlock detection algorithm. Deadlock can be written to MySQL error log.
    • InnoDB buffer pool state saving and restoring capabilities.
    • InnoDB Monitor dynamially disable/enable.
    • Online and inplace DDL operations for normal and partitioned InnoDB Tables to reduce application downtime.
  • Optimizer
    • ORDER BY non-index-column for simple queries and subqueries
    • Disk-Sweep Multi-Range Read (MRR) optimization for secondary index/table access to reduce I/O
    • Index Condition Pushdown (ICP) optimization by pushing down the WHERE filter to the storage engine.
    • EXPLAIN also works for DML statemetns.
    • Optimizing of subqueries in derived tables (FROM (...)) by postponing or indexing deived tables.
    • Implementation of semi-join and materialization strategies to optimize subquery execution.
    • Batched Key Access (BKA) join algorithm to improve join performance during table scanning.
    • Optimizer trace capabilities.
  • Performance Schema (P_S)
    • Instrumentation for Statements and stages
    • Configuration of consumers at server startup
    • Summary tables for table and index I/O and for table locks
    • Event filtering by table
    • Various new instrumentation.
  • Security
    • Encrypted authentication credentials
    • Stronger encryption for passwords (SHA-256 authentication plugin)
    • MySQL User password expiration.
    • Password validation plugin to check password strength
    • mysql_install_db can create secure root password by default
    • cleartext password is not written to any log file any more.
    • MySQL Firewall (Enterprise)
  • Replication
    • Transaction based replication using global transaction identifiers (GTID)
    • Row Image Control to reduce binary log volume.
    • Crash-safe replication with checksumming and verfiying.
    • IO and SQL thread information can be stored in an transactional table inside the DB.
    • MySQL binlog streaming with mysqlbinlog possible.
    • Delayes replication
    • Parallel replication on schema level.
  • Partitioning
    • Number of partitions including subpartitions increased to 8192.
    • Exchange partition with a normal table.
    • Explicit selection of specific partiton is possible.
    • Partition lock prunining for DML and DDL statements.
  • Condition handling: GET DIAGNOSTICS and SET DIAGNOSTICS
  • Server defaults changes.
  • Data types TIME, DATETIME and TIMESTAMP with microseconds
  • Host cache exposure and connection errors status infromation for finding connection problems.
  • Improvement in GIS functions.
  • Deprecation and remove of features.
  • Storage Engine
    • Cassandra Storage Engine
    • Conncect Storage Engine
    • Squence Storage Engine
    • Better table discovery (Federated-X)
    • Spider Storage Engine
    • TokuDB Storage Engine
    • Mroonga fulltext search Storage Engine
  • XtraDB
    • XtraDB Version 5.6
    • Async commit checkpoint in XtraDB and InnoDB
    • Support for atomic writes on FusionIO DirectFS
  • Replication
    • Parallel Replication
    • Global Transaction ID (GTID)
    • Multi Source Replication
  • Performance
    • Subquery Optimization (EXISTS to IN)
    • Faster UNIQUE KEY generation
    • Shutdown performance improvment for MyISAM/Aria table (adjustable hash size)
  • Security
    • Roles
    • MariaDB Audit Plugin
  • Optimizer
    • EXPLAIN for DML Statements
    • Engine independent table statistics
    • Histogram based statistics
    • QUERY_RESPONSE_TIME plugin
    • SHOW EXPLAIN for running connections
    • EXPLAIN in the Slow Query Log
  • Per thread memory usage statistics
  • SHOW PLUGINS SONAME
  • SHUTDOWN command
  • Killing a query by query id not thread id.
  • Return result set of delete rows with DELETE ... RETURNING
  • ALTER TABLE IF (NOT) EXISTS
  • CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE
  • Dynamic columns referenced by name
  • Multiple use locks (GET_LOCK) in one connection
  • Better error messages
  • New regular expressions (PCRE) REGEXP_REPLACE, REGEXP_INSTR, REGEXP_SUBSTR
  • Metadata lock information in INFORMATION_SCHEMA
  • Priority queue optimzation visibility
  • FLUSH TABLE ... FOR EXPORT flushes changes to disk for binary copy
  • CURRENT_TIMESTAMP as DEFAULT for DATETIME
  • Various features backported from MySQL 5.6
MySQL 5.7 (link) MariaDB 10.1 (link)
  • InnoDB
    • InnoDB Version 5.7
    • VARCHAR size increase can be in-place in some cases.
    • DDL performance improvements for temporary InnoDB tables (CREATE DROP TRUNCATE, ALTER)
    • Active InnoDB temporary table metadata are exposed in table INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO.
    • InnoDB support spatial data type (GIS, DATA_GEOMETRY)
    • Separate tablespace for temporary InnoDB tables.
    • Support for InnoDB Full-text parser plugins was added.
    • Multiple page cleaner threads were added.
    • Regular an paritioned InnoDB tables can be rebuilt using online inplace DDL commands (OPTIMZE, ALTER TABLE FORCE)
    • Automatic detection, support and optimization for Fusion-io NVM file system to support atomic writes.
    • Better support for Transportable Tablespaces to ease backup process.
    • InnoDB Buffer Pool size can be configured dynamically.
    • Multi-threaded page cleaner support for shutdown and recovery phase.
    • InnoDB spatial index support for online in place operation (ADD SPATIAL INDEX)
    • InnoDB sorted index builds to improve bulk loads.
    • Identification of modified tablespaces to increase crash recovery performance.
    • InnoDB UNDO log truncation.
    • InnoDB native partion support.
    • InnoDB general tablespace support for databases with a huge amount of tables.
    • InnoDB data at rest encryption for file-per-table tablespaces.
  • Performance
    • EXPLAIN for running connections (FOR CONNECTIONS)
    • Finer Control of optimizer hints.
  • Security
    • Old password support has been removed.
    • Autmomatic password expiry policies.
    • Lock and unlock of accounts.
    • SSL and RSA certificate and key file generation.
    • SSL enabled automatically if available.
    • MySQL will be initialized secure by default (= hardened)
    • STRICT_TRANS_TABLES sql_mode is now enabled by default.
    • ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY sql_mode made more sophisticated to only prohibit non deterministic query.
  • Replication
    • Master dump thread was refactored to improve throughput.
    • Replication Master change without STOP SLAVE.
    • Multi-source replication introduced.
  • Partitioning
    • HANDLER statment works now on partitioned tables.
    • Index Condition Pushdown (ICP) works for partitioned InnoDB and MyISAM tables.
    • ALTER TABLE EXCHANGE PARTITION WITHOU VALIDATION is possible to improve performance of exchnage.
  • Native JSON support
    • Data type JSON.
    • JSON functions: JSON_ARRAY, JSON_MERGE, JSON_OBJECT, JSON_CONTAINS, JSON_CONTAINS_PATH, JSON_EXTRACT, JSON_KEYS, JSON_SEARCH, JSON_APPEND, JSON_ARRAY_APPEND, JSON_ARRAY_INSERT, JSON_INSERT, JSON_QUOTE, JSON_REMOVE, JSON_REPLACE, JSON_SET, JSON_UNQUOTE, JSON_DEPTH, JSON_LENGTH, JSON_TYPE, JSON_VALID
  • System and status variables moved from INFORMATION_SCHEMA to PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA.
  • Sys Schema created by default.
  • Condition handling: GET STACKED DIAGNOSTICS
  • Multiple triggers per event are possible now.
  • Native logging to syslog possible.
  • Generated Column support.
  • Database rewriting in mysqlbinlog.
  • Control+C in mysql client does not exit any more but interrupts query only.
  • New China National Standard GB18030 character set.
  • RENAME INDEX is online inplace without a table copy.
  • Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) full-text parser implemented (ngram MeCab full-test parser plugins).
  • Deprecation and remove of features.
  • XtraDB
    • Allow up to 64K pages in InnoDB (old limit was 16K).
    • Defragmenting InnoDB Tablespaces improved which uses OPTIMIZE TABLE to defragment InnoDB tablespaces.
    • XtraDB page compression
  • Performance
    • Page compression for FusionIO
    • Do not create .frm files for temporary tables.
    • UNION ALL works without usage of a temporary table.
    • Scalability fixes for Power8.
    • Performance improvementes on simple queries.
    • Performance Schema tables no longer use .frm files.
    • xid cache scalability was significantly improved.
  • Replication
    • Optimistic mode of in-order parallel replication
    • domain_id based replication filters
    • Enhanced semisync replication: Wait for at least one slave to acknowledge transaction before committing.
    • Triggers can now be run on the slave for row-based events.
    • Dump Thread Enhancements: Makes multiple slave setups faster by allowing concurrent reading of binary log.
    • Throughput improvements in parallel replication.
    • RESET_MASTER is extended with TO.
  • Optimizer
    • ANALYZE statement provides output for how many rows were actually read, etc.
    • EXPLAIN FORMAT=JSON
    • ORDER BY optimization is improved.
    • MAX_STATEMENT_TIME can be used to automatically abort long running queries.
  • Security
    • Password validation plug-in API.
    • Simple password check password validation plugin.
    • Cracklib_password_check password validation plugin.
    • Table, Tablespace and Log at-rest encryption (TDE)
    • SET DEFAULT ROLE
    • New columns for the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.APPLICABLE_ROLES table.
  • Galera Cluster plug-in becomes standard in MariaDB.
  • Wsrep information in INFORMATION_SCHEMA: WSREP_MEMBERSHIP and WSREP_STATUS
  • Consistent support for IF EXISTS and IF NOT EXISTS and OR REPLACE for: CREATE DATABASE, CREATE FUNCTION UDF, CREATE ROLE, CREATE SERVER, CREATE USER, CREATE VIEW, DROP ROLE, DROP USER, CREATE EVENT, DROP EVENT, CREATE INDEX, DROP INDEX, CREATE TRIGGER, DROP TRIGGER
  • Information Schema plugins can now support SHOW and FLUSH statements.
  • GET_LOCK() now supports microseconds in the timeout.
  • The number of rows affected by a slow UPDATE or DELETE is now recorded in the slow query log.
  • Anonymous Compount Statents blocks are supported.
  • SQL standards-compliant behavior when dealing with Primary Keys with Nullable Columns.
  • Automatic discovery of PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA tables.
  • INFORMATION_SCHEMA.SYSTEM_VARIABLES, enforce_storage_engine, default-tmp-storage-engine, mysql56-temporal-format, Slave_skipped_errors, silent-startup
  • New status variables to show the number of grants on different object.
  • Set variables per statement: SET STATEMENT
  • Support for Spatial Reference systems for the GIS data.
  • More functions from the OGC standard added: ST_Boundary, ST_ConvexHull, ST_IsRing, ST_PointOnSurface, ST_Relate
  • GIS INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables: GEOMETRY_COLUMNS, SPATIAL_REF_SYS
MySQL 8.0 (link) MariaDB 10.2 (link)
  • InnoDB
    • InnoDB Version 8.0
    • AUTO_INCREMENT values are persisted accross server restarts.
    • Index corruption and in-memory corruption detection written persistently to the transaction log.
    • InnoDB Memcached plug-in supports multiple get operations.
    • Deadlock detection can be disabled and leads to a lock timeout to increase performance.
    • Index pages cached in buffer pool are listed in INNODB_CACHED_INDEXES.
    • All InnoDB temporary tables are created in InnoDB shared temporary tablespace.
  • JSON
    • Inline path operator ->> added.
    • Column paht operator -> improved.
    • JSON aggregation functions JSON_ARRAYAGG() and JSON_OBJECTAGG() added.
  • Security
    • Account management supports roles.
    • Aromicity in User Management DDLs.
  • Transactional data dictionary (DD).
  • Common Table Expressions (CTE, recursive SQL, Series creation)
  • Descending Indexes
  • Scaling and Performance of INFORMATION_SCHEMA (1 Mio table problem)
  • Deprecation and remove of features.

MySQL 8.0 is currently in a very early stage (DMR) so this list will increase over time!

  • XtraDB
    • XtraDB Version 5.6
  • Security
    • SHOW CREATE USER
    • CREATE USER and ALTER USER extended for limiting resources and TLS/SSL support.
  • Performance
    • Connection creation speed-up by separate thread.
  • Optimizer
    • EXPLAIN FORMAT=JSON improved.
  • Partition
    • Catchall partion for LIST partions.
  • Introduction of Window functions: CUME_DIST, DENSE_RANK, NTILE, PERCENT_RANK, RANK, ROW_NUMBER
  • WITH clause for recursive queries.
  • CHECK CONSTRAINT support.
  • Support for DEFAULT with expression.
  • BLOB and TEXT can now have default values.
  • Virtual computed columns restrictions lifted.
  • Supported decimals in DECIMAL increased from 30 to 38.
  • Multiple triggers for the same event.
  • Oracle style EXECUTE IMMEDIATE.
  • PREPARE STATEMENT understand most expressions.
  • I_S.USER_VARIABLES introduced as plug-in.
  • New status information: com_alter_user, com_multi, com_show_create_user.
  • New variables: innodb_tmpdir, read_binlog_speed_limit.
  • To come soon
    • MariaDB Column store (ex. InfiniDB)
    • MyRocks?

MariaDB 10.2 is currently in a early stage (beta release) so this list will increase over time...

MySQL 8.1 MariaDB 10.3 (link) and 10.4

No details are known yet. MySQL developer meetingt took place in November 2016.

  • Suggested features
    • Hidden columns
    • Long unique constraints
    • SQL based CREATE AGGREGATE FUNCTION
    • New data types: IPv6, UUID, pluggable data-type API
    • Better support for CJK (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) languages. Include the ngram full-text parser and MeCab full-text parser .
    • Improvement of Spider SE.
    • Support for SEQUENCES
    • Additional PL/SQL parser
    • Support for INTERSECT
    • Support for EXCEPT

MariaDB 10.3 is currently in a very early stage so this list will increase over time!


Please let me know if I got something wrong or forgot any significant feature for theses 2 MySQL branches.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: featuresmariadbmysqlnew

Multi-Instance set-up with MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7 on RHEL 7 with SystemD

Wed, 2016-10-26 22:15

In our current project the customer wants to install and run multiple MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7 Instances on the same machine (yes, I know about virtualization (we run on kvm), containers, Docker, etc.). He wants to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7 which brings the additional challenge of SystemD. So mysqld_multi is NOT an option any more.

We studied the MySQL documentation about the topic: Configuring Multiple MySQL Instances Using systemd. But to be honest: It was not really clear to me how to do the job...

So we started to work out our own cook-book which I want to share here.

The requirements are as follows:

  • Only ONE version of MySQL Enterprise Server binaries at a time is available. If you want to have more complicated set-ups (multi version) consider our MyEnv.
  • Because Segregation of Duties is an issue for this customer from the financial industries we are not allowed to use the operating system root user or have sudo privileges.
  • We have to work with the operating system user mysql as non privileged user.
Preparation work for the operating system administrator

This is the only work which has to be done under a privileged account (root):

shell> sudo yum install libaio shell> sudo groupadd mysql shell> sudo useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/bash mysql shell> sudo cp mysqld@.service /etc/systemd/system/
Installation of MySQL Enterprise Server binaries as non privileged user

To perform this task we need the generic MySQL Binary Tar Balls which you can get from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud:

shell> mkdir /home/mysql/product shell> cd /home/mysql/product shell> tar xf /download/mysql-<version>.tar.gz shell> ln -s mysql-<version> mysql-5.7.x shell> ln -s mysql-5.7.x mysql shell> echo 'export PATH=$PATH:/home/mysql/product/mysql/bin' >> ~/.bashrc shell> . ~/.bashrc
Creating, Starting and Stopping several MySQL Enterprise Server Instances shell> export INSTANCE_NAME=TMYSQL01 # and TMYSQL02 and TMYSQL03 shell> mkdir -p /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/etc /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/log /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/data /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/binlog shell> cat /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/etc/my.cnf # # /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/etc/my.cnf # [mysqld] datadir = /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/data pid_file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld_${INSTANCE_NAME}.pid log_error = /mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/log/error_${INSTANCE_NAME}.log port = 3306 # and 3307 and 3308 socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld_${INSTANCE_NAME}.sock _EOF shell> cd /home/mysql/product/mysql shell> bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/etc/my.cnf --initialize --user=mysql --basedir=/home/mysql/product/mysql shell> bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/mysql/${INSTANCE_NAME}/etc/my.cnf --daemonize >/dev/null 2>&1 & shell> mysqladmin --user=root --socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld_${INSTANCE_NAME}.sock --password shutdown

So far so good. We can do everything with the database without root privileges. One thing is missing: The MySQL Database Instances should be started automatically at system reboot. For this we need a SystemD unit file:

# # /etc/systemd/system/mysqld@.service # [Unit] Description=Multi-Instance MySQL Enterprise Server After=network.target syslog.target [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target [Service] User=mysql Group=mysql Type=forking PIDFile=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld_%i.pid TimeoutStartSec=3 TimeoutStopSec=3 # true is needed for the ExecStartPre PermissionsStartOnly=true ExecStartPre=/bin/mkdir -p /var/run/mysqld ExecStartPre=/bin/chown mysql: /var/run/mysqld ExecStart=/home/mysql/product/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/mysql/%i/etc/my.cnf --daemonize LimitNOFILE=8192 Restart=on-failure RestartPreventExitStatus=1 PrivateTmp=false

This file must be copied as root to:

shell> cp mysqld@.service /etc/systemd/system/

Now you can check if SystemD behaves correctly as follows:

shell> sudo systemctl daemon-reload shell> sudo systemctl enable mysqld@TMYSQL01 # also TMYSQL02 and TMYSQL03 shell> sudo systemctl start mysqld@TMYSQL01 shell> sudo systemctl status 'mysqld@TMYSQL*' shell> sudo systemctl start mysqld@TMYSQL01
How to go even further

If you need a more convenient or a more flexible solution you can go with our MySQL Enterprise Environment MyEnv.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: multi instancemysqld_multimysql enterprise serverrhelred hatsystemdmyenv

What are the differences between MySQL Community and MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7

Tue, 2016-10-25 22:26
The MySQL Server itself

The differences between the MySQL Community Server and the MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7 are as follows as claimed by Oracle:

  • The license of the MySQL Server
  • Only MySQL Enterprise Edition has the Enterprise plug-ins (Thread Pool, PAM, Audit, etc.)
  • Certifications and Indemnification support for the MySQL Enterprise Server
  • The MySQL Community Server statically links against yaSSL and readline vs MySQL Enterprise Server OpenSSL and libedit
The license of the MySQL Server

The MySQL Community Server is licensed under the GNU General Public License version 2 whereas the MySQL Enterprise Server is under an Oracle proprietary license as you can see from the following diffs of 2 random files:

shell> diff mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share/charsets/latin1.xml mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share/charsets/latin1.xml 6,7c6,7 < Copyright (c) 2003, 2005 MySQL AB < Use is subject to license terms --- > Copyright (c) 2003, 2005 MySQL AB > Use is subject to license terms. 9,20c9,20 < This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify < it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by < the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License. < < This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, < but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of < MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the < GNU General Public License for more details. < < You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License < along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software < Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA --- > > > > > > > > > > > > The lines above are intentionally left blank

This information can also be found in the following files:

mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/COPYING GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. ... mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/README MySQL Server 5.7 This is a release of MySQL, a dual-license SQL database server. For the avoidance of doubt, this particular copy of the software is released under the version 2 of the GNU General Public License. MySQL is brought to you by Oracle. ... mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/LICENSE.mysql MySQL Server Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited. ... mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/README MySQL Server 5.x This is a release of MySQL, a dual-license SQL database server. For the avoidance of doubt, this particular copy of the software is released under a commercial license and the GNU General Public License does not apply. MySQL is brought to you by Oracle. ...
Enterprise plug-ins of the MySQL Enterprise Server

Oracle/MySQL follows the open core business model with the MySQL Server. This means: The MySQL Community Server is the same as the MySQL Enterprise Server but the MySQL Enterprise Server has some additional modules and programs compared to the MySQL Community Server:

  • MySQL Enterprise Backup
  • MySQL Enterprise Monitor
  • MySQL Enterprise Security
  • MySQL Enterprise Audit

See also: MySQL Enterprise Edition.

If we check this in the packages we find the following additional plug-ins in the MySQL Enterprise Server:

shell> ls -la mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib/plugin: -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 3556085 Sep 28 19:35 audit_log.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 73855 Sep 28 19:35 authentication_pam.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 1595720 Sep 28 19:35 firewall.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 3748543 Sep 28 19:35 keyring_okv.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 2283844 Sep 28 19:35 openssl_udf.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 567032 Sep 28 19:34 thread_pool.so
MySQL Enterprise Server Certifications and Indemnification support

This is legal stuff. I only care about technical problems... If you have Open Source legal questions please get in contact with us and we will direct you to lawyers which are specialised in this topic.

Different libraries

The MySQL Community Server statically links against yaSSL and readline vs MySQL Enterprise Server against OpenSSL and libedit.

This is one one side a legal stuff GPL vs BSD license. On the other side it is a political question. Unfortunately the OpenSSL used in the MySQL Enterprise Server is actually a bit more feature reach than yaSSL.

We can also see the differences between the different SSL libraries when we search for the symbols:

shell> grep -ic yassl *.mysqld community.mysqld:1118 enterprise.mysqld:0 shell> grep -ic openssl *.mysqld community.mysqld:3 enterprise.mysqld:38 shell]> grep -i openssl community.mysql yaOpenSSL_add_all_algorithms _ZL16Sys_have_openssl _ZN8TaoCrypt18RSA_Public_Decoder17ReadHeaderOpenSSLEv
Other technical comparisons

Beside of the described findings above I am a very curious child...

It seems like we can find here some build info:

shell> ll mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs/INFO_BIN mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs/INFO_BIN -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 5672 Sep 28 20:14 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs/INFO_BIN -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 5969 Sep 28 19:45 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs/INFO_BIN shell> diff mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs/INFO_BIN mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs/INFO_BIN 10,13c10,13 < C_FLAGS = -fPIC -Wall -Wextra -Wformat-security -Wvla -Wwrite-strings -Wdeclaration-after-statement -O3 -g -fabi-version=2 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -DDBUG_OFF -I/export/home/somepath/release/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/rapidjson/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/export -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/sql/conn_handler -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/sql/auth -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/regex -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/zlib -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/yassl/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/yassl/taocrypt/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/lz4 -DHAVE_YASSL -DYASSL_PREFIX -DHAVE_OPENSSL -DMULTI_THREADED < C_DEFINES = -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -DHAVE_LIBEVENT1 -DHAVE_REPLICATION -DMYSQL_SERVER -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_GNU_SOURCE < CXX_FLAGS = -fPIC -Wall -Wextra -Wformat-security -Wvla -Woverloaded-virtual -Wno-unused-parameter -O3 -g -fabi-version=2 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -DDBUG_OFF -I/export/home/somepath/release/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/rapidjson/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/export -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/sql/conn_handler -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/sql/auth -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/regex -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/zlib -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/yassl/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/yassl/taocrypt/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysql-5.7.16/extra/lz4 -DHAVE_YASSL -DYASSL_PREFIX -DHAVE_OPENSSL -DMULTI_THREADED < CXX_DEFINES = -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -DHAVE_LIBEVENT1 -DHAVE_REPLICATION -DMYSQL_SERVER -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_GNU_SOURCE --- > C_FLAGS = -fPIC -Wall -Wextra -Wformat-security -Wvla -Wwrite-strings -Wdeclaration-after-statement -O3 -g -fabi-version=2 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -DDBUG_OFF -I/export/home/somepath/release/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/extra/rapidjson/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/export -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/sql/conn_handler -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/sql/auth -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/regex -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/zlib -I/export/home/somepath/dep4/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/extra/lz4 > C_DEFINES = -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -DHAVE_LIBEVENT1 -DHAVE_OPENSSL -DHAVE_REPLICATION -DMYSQL_SERVER -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_GNU_SOURCE > CXX_FLAGS = -fPIC -Wall -Wextra -Wformat-security -Wvla -Woverloaded-virtual -Wno-unused-parameter -O3 -g -fabi-version=2 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -DDBUG_OFF -I/export/home/somepath/release/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/extra/rapidjson/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/export -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/sql/conn_handler -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/libbinlogevents/include -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/sql/auth -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/regex -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/zlib -I/export/home/somepath/dep4/include -I/export/home/somepath/release/sql -I/export/home/somepath/mysqlcom-pro-5.7.16/extra/lz4 > CXX_DEFINES = -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -DHAVE_LIBEVENT1 -DHAVE_OPENSSL -DHAVE_REPLICATION -DMYSQL_SERVER -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -D_GNU_SOURCE 23a24 > CRYPTO_LIBRARY:FILEPATH=/export/home/somepath/dep4/lib/libcrypto.a 34c35 < FEATURE_SET:STRING=community --- > FEATURE_SET:STRING=xlarge 44a46,48 > OPENSSL_INCLUDE_DIR:PATH=/export/home/somepath/dep4/include > OPENSSL_LIBRARY:FILEPATH=/export/home/somepath/dep4/lib/libssl.a > OPENSSL_ROOT_DIR:PATH=/export/home/somepath/dep4 73c77,78 < WITH_SSL:STRING=bundled --- > WITH_SSL:STRING=/export/home/somepath/dep4 > WITH_SSL_PATH:PATH=/export/home/somepath/dep4

The size of the contents is more or less the same (22 Mbyte difference):

shell> du -ksc mysql*5.7.16-linux*/* 1355480 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin 20 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/COPYING 20 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs 1220 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/include 1217880 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib 836 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/man 4 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/README 4144 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share 32 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/support-files 2579636 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64 1345864 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin 4 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/LICENSE.mysql 15664 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs 1188 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/include 1233168 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib 988 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/man 4 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/README 4144 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share 32 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/support-files 2601060 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64

The biggest difference we see in the docs folder where the mysql.info file is located (left over from clean-up?):

shell> ll mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1789 Sep 28 19:06 ChangeLog -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 5969 Sep 28 19:45 INFO_BIN -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 185 Sep 28 19:34 INFO_SRC -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 16017476 Sep 28 19:06 mysql.info

If we want to see the different number of files:

for i in $(find mysql*5.7.16-linux* -maxdepth 1 -type d) ; do echo -n $i": " ; ( find $i -type f | wc -l ) ; done mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/support-files: 5 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share: 62 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/man: 41 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin: 38 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib: 116 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs: 3 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/include: 107 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64: 374 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/support-files: 5 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share: 66 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/man: 41 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin: 38 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib: 128 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs: 4 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/include: 107 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64: 391

Those are the important differences:

-rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1046 Sep 28 19:02 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share/audit_log_filter_linux_install.sql -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1052 Sep 28 19:02 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share/audit_log_filter_win_install.sql -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 239 Sep 28 19:33 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share/uninstall_rewriter.sql -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 2207 Sep 28 19:02 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/share/win_install_firewall.sql -rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 16017476 Sep 28 19:06 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/docs/mysql.info -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 3556085 Sep 28 19:35 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib/plugin/audit_log.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 73855 Sep 28 19:35 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib/plugin/authentication_pam.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 1595720 Sep 28 19:35 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib/plugin/firewall.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 3748543 Sep 28 19:35 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib/plugin/keyring_okv.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 2283844 Sep 28 19:35 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib/plugin/openssl_udf.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 567032 Sep 28 19:34 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/lib/plugin/thread_pool.so

So basically all MySQL Enterprise Server feature files.

The most imporant MySQL binaries Let us have a look at the most important MySQL binaries: shell> ll mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql shell> ll mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog shell> ll mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld shell> ll mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump shell> ll mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db shell> ll mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 10884339 Sep 28 20:04 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 9815101 Sep 28 19:38 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 11780342 Sep 28 20:06 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 10711774 Sep 28 19:39 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 253303409 Sep 28 20:11 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 253876847 Sep 28 19:42 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 9989115 Sep 28 20:06 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 8921087 Sep 28 19:39 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 10711017 Sep 28 20:04 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 8883445 Sep 28 19:38 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 13025173 Sep 28 20:07 mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade -rwxr-xr-x 1 mysql mysql 11961246 Sep 28 19:40 mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade

Here you can see some differences I cannot explain. Possibly they come from the use of the SSL and libedit/readline libraries?

The files are basicaly of the same type/style:

shell> file mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql shell> file mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog shell> file mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld shell> file mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump shell> file mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db shell> file mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.9, not stripped

When we look into the symbol tables of those 6 binaries we can see some differences which IMHO are mostly caused because of the 2 different set of libraries:

nm mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql | cut -b20- >community.mysql nm mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql | cut -b20- >enterprise.mysql diff community.mysql enterprise.mysql | less nm mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog | cut -b20- >community.mysqlbinlog nm mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqlbinlog | cut -b20- >enterprise.mysqlbinlog diff community.mysqlbinlog enterprise.mysqlbinlog | less nm mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld | cut -b20- >community.mysqld nm mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqld | cut -b20- >enterprise.mysqld diff community.mysqld enterprise.mysqld | less nm mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump | cut -b20- >community.mysqldump nm mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysqldump | cut -b20- >enterprise.mysqldump diff community.mysqldump enterprise.mysqldump | less nm mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db | cut -b20- >community.mysql_install_db nm mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_install_db | cut -b20- >enterprise.mysql_install_db diff community.mysql_install_db enterprise.mysql_install_db | less nm mysql-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade | cut -b20- >community.mysql_upgrade nm mysql-advanced-5.7.16-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64/bin/mysql_upgrade | cut -b20- >enterprise.mysql_upgrade diff community.mysql_upgrade enterprise.mysql_upgrade | less

Here are the files for your own research: mysql_community_and_enterprise_symbols.tar.gz

Some more details:

shell> grep zlib community.mysql enterprise.mysql community.mysql:zlibCompileFlags community.mysql:zlibVersion enterprise.mysql:COMP_zlib enterprise.mysql:COMP_zlib_cleanup enterprise.mysql:zlibCompileFlags enterprise.mysql:zlib_method_nozlib enterprise.mysql:zlibVersion shell> diff community.mysqld enterprise.mysqld | grep -i partit no differences shell> diff community.mysqld enterprise.mysqld | grep -i err_ < err_helper > ERR_add_error_data > ERR_add_error_vdata > ERR_clear_error > err_defaults > ERR_error_string > ERR_error_string_n > err_fns > ERR_free_strings > ERR_func_error_string > ERR_get_error > ERR_get_error_line > ERR_get_error_line_data > ERR_get_err_state_table > ERR_get_implementation > ERR_get_next_error_library > ERR_get_state > ERR_get_string_table > ERR_lib_error_string > ERR_load_ASN1_strings > ERR_load_BIO_strings > ERR_load_BN_strings > ERR_load_BUF_strings > ERR_load_CMS_strings > ERR_load_COMP_strings > ERR_load_CONF_strings > ERR_load_crypto_strings > ERR_load_CRYPTO_strings > ERR_load_DH_strings > ERR_load_DSA_strings > ERR_load_DSO_strings > ERR_load_ECDH_strings > ERR_load_ECDSA_strings > ERR_load_EC_strings > ERR_load_ENGINE_strings > ERR_load_ERR_strings > ERR_load_EVP_strings > ERR_load_OBJ_strings > ERR_load_OCSP_strings > ERR_load_PEM_strings > ERR_load_PKCS12_strings > ERR_load_PKCS7_strings > ERR_load_RAND_strings > ERR_load_RSA_strings > ERR_load_SSL_strings > ERR_load_strings > ERR_load_TS_strings > ERR_load_UI_strings > ERR_load_X509_strings > ERR_load_X509V3_strings > ERR_peek_error > ERR_peek_error_line > ERR_peek_error_line_data > ERR_peek_last_error > ERR_peek_last_error_line > ERR_peek_last_error_line_data > ERR_pop_to_mark > ERR_print_errors > ERR_print_errors_cb > ERR_print_errors_fp > ERR_put_error > ERR_reason_error_string > ERR_release_err_state_table > ERR_remove_state > ERR_remove_thread_state > ERR_set_error_data > ERR_set_implementation > ERR_set_mark > err_state_LHASH_COMP > err_state_LHASH_HASH > ERR_str_functs > err_string_data_LHASH_COMP > err_string_data_LHASH_HASH > ERR_str_libraries > ERR_str_reasons > ERR_unload_strings > int_err_del > int_err_del_item > int_err_get > int_err_get_item > int_err_get_next_lib > int_err_library_number > int_err_set_item < yaERR_error_string < yaERR_error_string_n < yaERR_free_strings < yaERR_get_error < yaERR_get_error_line_data < yaERR_GET_REASON < yaERR_peek_error < yaERR_print_errors_fp < yaERR_remove_state < _ZZ18yaERR_error_stringE3msg
MySQL Enterprise Server and MySQL Community Server packages

This is not directly MySQL Server related but it affects operation as well: We found today that the MySQL Enterprise Server RPM package and the MySQL Community Server packages were not prepared the same. The MySQL Enterprise Server for MySQL 5.7.15 package was still using sysV init scripts whereas the MySQL 5.7.15 Community Server package seems to use already SystermD unit files (since MySQL 5.7.6: Managing MySQL Server with systemd). This has change from MySQL 5.7.15 to MySQL 5.7.16 Enterprise Server. So if you side-grade from MySQL Community to MySQL Enterprise Server you might experience some surprises...

Taxonomy upgrade extras: mysql servermysql community servermysql enterprise serverenterprise

How to build your own RPM repository for MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7 on RHEL 7

Mon, 2016-10-24 23:01
Prepare the RPM repository server

Install the software to create a RPM repository server (on an Ubuntu web server):

shell> sudo apt-get install createrepo

Create the directory structures and initialize the repositories:

shell> sudo mkdir -p /var/www/html/repos/centos/7/os/x86_64 shell> sudo createrepo /var/www/html/repos/centos/7/os/x86_64/

Copy the MySQL Enterprise RPM packages to the repository:

shell> sudo cd /var/www/html/repos/centos/7/os/x86_64/ shell> sudo unzip -v /download/V790254-01.zip # MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7.16 Archive: /download/V790254-01.zip Length Method Size Cmpr Date Time CRC-32 Name --------- ------ -------- ---- ---------- ----- -------- ---- 23979568 Stored 23979568 0% 2016-09-29 16:56 ae6693b1 mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 45327096 Stored 45327096 0% 2016-09-29 16:56 bb83c965 mysql-commercial-embedded-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 271300 Stored 271300 0% 2016-09-29 16:56 b4eebc96 mysql-commercial-common-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 2041404 Stored 2041404 0% 2016-09-29 16:57 cfc63d84 mysql-commercial-libs-compat-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 23747244 Stored 23747244 0% 2016-09-29 16:56 7b4d36fa mysql-commercial-embedded-compat-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 3644756 Stored 3644756 0% 2016-09-29 16:56 613af6a3 mysql-commercial-devel-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 170697184 Stored 170697184 0% 2016-09-29 16:57 ce26e84a mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 116778644 Stored 116778644 0% 2016-09-29 16:58 8ca7f0f0 mysql-commercial-test-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 125679224 Stored 125679224 0% 2016-09-29 16:57 e74a416d mysql-commercial-embedded-devel-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 2172140 Stored 2172140 0% 2016-09-29 16:57 e2a1c2f9 mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm 3018 Stored 3018 0% 2016-10-11 13:00 6d6efc1e README.txt --------- --------- ---- ------- 514341578 514341578 0% 11 files

Update the RPM repository meta data:

shell> sudo createrepo --update /var/www/html/repos/centos/7/os/x86_64/

Now the RPM repository server is finished.

Prepare the RPM client

Create the MySQL Enterprise Server repository file for the client. The IP address represents the IP address of your RPM repository server:

# # /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-enterprise.repo # [mysql57-enterprise] name=MySQL 5.7 Enterprise Server baseurl=http://192.168.56.1/repos/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/ gpgcheck=1 enabled=1 gpgkey=http://192.168.56.1/repos/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7

Clean up the yum cache:

shell> yum clean all Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Cleaning repos: base extras mysql57-enterprise updates Cleaning up everything

Show all know RPM repositories:

shell> yum repolist Loaded plugins: fastestmirror base | 3.6 kB 00:00:00 extras | 3.4 kB 00:00:00 mysql57-enterprise | 2.9 kB 00:00:00 updates | 3.4 kB 00:00:00 (1/5): mysql57-enterprise/7/x86_64/primary_db | 12 kB 00:00:00 (2/5): base/7/x86_64/group_gz | 155 kB 00:00:00 (3/5): extras/7/x86_64/primary_db | 166 kB 00:00:00 (4/5): base/7/x86_64/primary_db | 5.3 MB 00:00:06 (5/5): updates/7/x86_64/primary_db | 8.4 MB 00:00:11 Determining fastest mirrors * base: mirror.imt-systems.com * extras: mirror.eu.oneandone.net * updates: mirror.rackspeed.de repo id repo name status base/7/x86_64 CentOS-7 - Base 9'007 extras/7/x86_64 CentOS-7 - Extras 393 mysql57-enterprise/7/x86_64 MySQL 5.7 Enterprise Server 10 updates/7/x86_64 CentOS-7 - Updates 2'548 repolist: 11'958

Search what MySQL Enterprise Server packages are available:

shell> yum search mysql-commercial Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirror.imt-systems.com * extras: mirror.eu.oneandone.net * updates: mirror.rackspeed.de ============================================================================= N/S matched: mysql-commercial ============================================================================== mysql-commercial-client.x86_64 : MySQL database client applications and tools mysql-commercial-common.x86_64 : MySQL database common files for server and client libs mysql-commercial-devel.x86_64 : Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications mysql-commercial-embedded.x86_64 : MySQL embedded library mysql-commercial-embedded-compat.x86_64 : MySQL embedded compat library mysql-commercial-embedded-devel.x86_64 : Development header files and libraries for MySQL as an embeddable library mysql-commercial-libs.x86_64 : Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications mysql-commercial-libs-compat.x86_64 : Shared compat libraries for MySQL 5.6.31 database client applications mysql-commercial-server.x86_64 : A very fast and reliable SQL database server mysql-commercial-test.x86_64 : Test suite for the MySQL database server Name and summary matches only, use "search all" for everything.

Now you are ready to install your MySQL Enterprise Server RPM packages:

shell> yum install mysql-commercial-server Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirror.imt-systems.com * extras: mirror.eu.oneandone.net * updates: mirror.rackspeed.de Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package mysql-commercial-server.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: mysql-commercial-client(x86-64) >= 5.7.9 for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1(LIBAIO_0.4)(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Getopt::Long) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: /usr/bin/perl for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(strict) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: net-tools for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1(LIBAIO_0.1)(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1()(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Running transaction check ---> Package libaio.x86_64 0:0.3.109-13.el7 will be installed ---> Package mysql-commercial-client.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be installed ---> Package net-tools.x86_64 0:2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl-libs = 4:5.16.3-286.el7 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Socket) >= 1.3 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Scalar::Util) >= 1.10 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl-macros for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl-libs for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(threads::shared) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(threads) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(constant) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Time::Local) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Time::HiRes) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Storable) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Socket) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Scalar::Util) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Simple::XHTML) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Simple::Search) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Filter::Util::Call) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Temp) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec::Unix) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec::Functions) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Path) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Exporter) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Cwd) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Carp) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libperl.so()(64bit) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 ---> Package perl-Getopt-Long.noarch 0:2.40-2.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Usage) >= 1.14 for package: perl-Getopt-Long-2.40-2.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(Text::ParseWords) for package: perl-Getopt-Long-2.40-2.el7.noarch --> Running transaction check ---> Package perl-Carp.noarch 0:1.26-244.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Exporter.noarch 0:5.68-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-File-Path.noarch 0:2.09-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-File-Temp.noarch 0:0.23.01-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Filter.x86_64 0:1.49-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-PathTools.x86_64 0:3.40-5.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Simple.noarch 1:3.28-4.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Escapes) >= 1.04 for package: 1:perl-Pod-Simple-3.28-4.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(Encode) for package: 1:perl-Pod-Simple-3.28-4.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-Pod-Usage.noarch 0:1.63-3.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Text) >= 3.15 for package: perl-Pod-Usage-1.63-3.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl-Pod-Perldoc for package: perl-Pod-Usage-1.63-3.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-Scalar-List-Utils.x86_64 0:1.27-248.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Socket.x86_64 0:2.010-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Storable.x86_64 0:2.45-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Text-ParseWords.noarch 0:3.29-4.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Time-HiRes.x86_64 4:1.9725-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Time-Local.noarch 0:1.2300-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-constant.noarch 0:1.27-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-libs.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-macros.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-threads.x86_64 0:1.87-4.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-threads-shared.x86_64 0:1.43-6.el7 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package perl-Encode.x86_64 0:2.51-7.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Escapes.noarch 1:1.04-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Perldoc.noarch 0:3.20-4.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(parent) for package: perl-Pod-Perldoc-3.20-4.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(HTTP::Tiny) for package: perl-Pod-Perldoc-3.20-4.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-podlators.noarch 0:2.5.1-3.el7 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package perl-HTTP-Tiny.noarch 0:0.033-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-parent.noarch 1:0.225-244.el7 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Installing: mysql-commercial-server x86_64 5.7.16-1.1.el7 mysql57-enterprise 163 M Installing for dependencies: libaio x86_64 0.3.109-13.el7 base 24 k mysql-commercial-client x86_64 5.7.16-1.1.el7 mysql57-enterprise 23 M net-tools x86_64 2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 base 304 k perl x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 base 8.0 M perl-Carp noarch 1.26-244.el7 base 19 k perl-Encode x86_64 2.51-7.el7 base 1.5 M perl-Exporter noarch 5.68-3.el7 base 28 k perl-File-Path noarch 2.09-2.el7 base 26 k perl-File-Temp noarch 0.23.01-3.el7 base 56 k perl-Filter x86_64 1.49-3.el7 base 76 k perl-Getopt-Long noarch 2.40-2.el7 base 56 k perl-HTTP-Tiny noarch 0.033-3.el7 base 38 k perl-PathTools x86_64 3.40-5.el7 base 82 k perl-Pod-Escapes noarch 1:1.04-286.el7 base 50 k perl-Pod-Perldoc noarch 3.20-4.el7 base 87 k perl-Pod-Simple noarch 1:3.28-4.el7 base 216 k perl-Pod-Usage noarch 1.63-3.el7 base 27 k perl-Scalar-List-Utils x86_64 1.27-248.el7 base 36 k perl-Socket x86_64 2.010-3.el7 base 49 k perl-Storable x86_64 2.45-3.el7 base 77 k perl-Text-ParseWords noarch 3.29-4.el7 base 14 k perl-Time-HiRes x86_64 4:1.9725-3.el7 base 45 k perl-Time-Local noarch 1.2300-2.el7 base 24 k perl-constant noarch 1.27-2.el7 base 19 k perl-libs x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 base 687 k perl-macros x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 base 43 k perl-parent noarch 1:0.225-244.el7 base 12 k perl-podlators noarch 2.5.1-3.el7 base 112 k perl-threads x86_64 1.87-4.el7 base 49 k perl-threads-shared x86_64 1.43-6.el7 base 39 k Transaction Summary ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Install 1 Package (+30 Dependent packages) Total download size: 197 M Installed size: 852 M Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Further sources of information: Taxonomy upgrade extras: rpmrepositorymysqlmysql enterprise serverenterpriserhelred hat

How to Install MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

Mon, 2016-10-24 22:03

If you have already Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (RHEL 7) or CentOS 7 in use you probably found out, that it is not that easy to install MySQL Enterprise Server because there are already pre-installed MariaDB 5.5 libraries:

shell> yum localinstall mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-commercial-common-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Examining mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 Marking mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed Examining mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 Marking mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed Examining mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 Marking mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed Examining mysql-commercial-common-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-commercial-common-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 Marking mysql-commercial-common-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.50-1.el7_2 will be obsoleted --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: wftp.tu-chemnitz.de * extras: wftp.tu-chemnitz.de * updates: mirror.rackspeed.de --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 ---> Package mysql-commercial-client.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be installed ---> Package mysql-commercial-common.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be installed ---> Package mysql-commercial-libs.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be obsoleting ---> Package mysql-commercial-server.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: /usr/bin/perl for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1(LIBAIO_0.1)(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1(LIBAIO_0.4)(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: net-tools for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Getopt::Long) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(strict) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1()(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Running transaction check ---> Package libaio.x86_64 0:0.3.109-13.el7 will be installed ---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.50-1.el7_2 will be obsoleted --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 ---> Package net-tools.x86_64 0:2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl-libs = 4:5.16.3-286.el7 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Socket) >= 1.3 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Scalar::Util) >= 1.10 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl-macros for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl-libs for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(threads::shared) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(threads) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(constant) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Time::Local) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Time::HiRes) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Storable) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Socket) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Scalar::Util) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Simple::XHTML) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Simple::Search) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Filter::Util::Call) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Temp) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec::Unix) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec::Functions) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Path) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Exporter) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Cwd) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Carp) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libperl.so()(64bit) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 ---> Package perl-Getopt-Long.noarch 0:2.40-2.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Usage) >= 1.14 for package: perl-Getopt-Long-2.40-2.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(Text::ParseWords) for package: perl-Getopt-Long-2.40-2.el7.noarch --> Running transaction check ---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.50-1.el7_2 will be obsoleted --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 ---> Package perl-Carp.noarch 0:1.26-244.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Exporter.noarch 0:5.68-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-File-Path.noarch 0:2.09-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-File-Temp.noarch 0:0.23.01-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Filter.x86_64 0:1.49-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-PathTools.x86_64 0:3.40-5.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Simple.noarch 1:3.28-4.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Escapes) >= 1.04 for package: 1:perl-Pod-Simple-3.28-4.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(Encode) for package: 1:perl-Pod-Simple-3.28-4.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-Pod-Usage.noarch 0:1.63-3.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Text) >= 3.15 for package: perl-Pod-Usage-1.63-3.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl-Pod-Perldoc for package: perl-Pod-Usage-1.63-3.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-Scalar-List-Utils.x86_64 0:1.27-248.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Socket.x86_64 0:2.010-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Storable.x86_64 0:2.45-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Text-ParseWords.noarch 0:3.29-4.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Time-HiRes.x86_64 4:1.9725-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Time-Local.noarch 0:1.2300-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-constant.noarch 0:1.27-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-libs.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-macros.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-threads.x86_64 0:1.87-4.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-threads-shared.x86_64 0:1.43-6.el7 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.50-1.el7_2 will be obsoleted --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 ---> Package perl-Encode.x86_64 0:2.51-7.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Escapes.noarch 1:1.04-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Perldoc.noarch 0:3.20-4.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(parent) for package: perl-Pod-Perldoc-3.20-4.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(HTTP::Tiny) for package: perl-Pod-Perldoc-3.20-4.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-podlators.noarch 0:2.5.1-3.el7 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.50-1.el7_2 will be obsoleted --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) for package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 ---> Package perl-HTTP-Tiny.noarch 0:0.033-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-parent.noarch 1:0.225-244.el7 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Error: Package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 (@anaconda) Requires: libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) Removing: 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.50-1.el7_2.x86_64 (@updates) libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) Obsoleted By: mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 (/mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64) Not found Available: 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.44-2.el7.centos.x86_64 (base) libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) Available: 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.47-1.el7_2.x86_64 (updates) libmysqlclient.so.18(libmysqlclient_18)(64bit) Error: Package: 2:postfix-2.10.1-6.el7.x86_64 (@anaconda) Requires: libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) Removing: 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.50-1.el7_2.x86_64 (@updates) libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) Obsoleted By: mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 (/mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64) ~libmysqlclient.so.20()(64bit) Available: 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.44-2.el7.centos.x86_64 (base) libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) Available: 1:mariadb-libs-5.5.47-1.el7_2.x86_64 (updates) libmysqlclient.so.18()(64bit) You could try using --skip-broken to work around the problem You could try running: rpm -Va --nofiles --nodigest

You can remove postfix and mariadb-libs but this will most probably cause you troubles sooner or later:

shell> yum remove postfix mariadb-libs Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.50-1.el7_2 will be erased ---> Package postfix.x86_64 2:2.10.1-6.el7 will be erased --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Removing: mariadb-libs x86_64 1:5.5.50-1.el7_2 @updates 4.4 M postfix x86_64 2:2.10.1-6.el7 @anaconda 12 M Transaction Summary ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Remove 2 Packages Installed size: 17 M Is this ok [y/N]: n

If you look at the MySQL Installation Guide: Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle it is unfortunately not really very well documented how to install MySQL Enterprise Server: "using rpm -Uvh instead makes the installation process more prone to failure, due to potential dependency issues the installation process might run into".

So the correct way to install MySQL Enterprise Server 5.7 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (RHEL7) or CentOS 7 is as follows:

shell> rpm --upgrade mysql-commercial-libs-compat-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-commercial-libs-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-commercial-common-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm shell> yum localinstall mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Examining mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 Marking mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed Examining mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm: mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 Marking mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64.rpm to be installed Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package mysql-commercial-client.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be installed ---> Package mysql-commercial-server.x86_64 0:5.7.16-1.1.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: /usr/bin/perl for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: wftp.tu-chemnitz.de * extras: wftp.tu-chemnitz.de * updates: mirror.rackspeed.de --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1(LIBAIO_0.1)(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1(LIBAIO_0.4)(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: net-tools for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Getopt::Long) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(strict) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libaio.so.1()(64bit) for package: mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 --> Running transaction check ---> Package libaio.x86_64 0:0.3.109-13.el7 will be installed ---> Package net-tools.x86_64 0:2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl-libs = 4:5.16.3-286.el7 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Socket) >= 1.3 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Scalar::Util) >= 1.10 for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl-macros for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl-libs for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(threads::shared) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(threads) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(constant) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Time::Local) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Time::HiRes) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Storable) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Socket) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Scalar::Util) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Simple::XHTML) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Simple::Search) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Filter::Util::Call) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Temp) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec::Unix) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec::Functions) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Spec) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(File::Path) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Exporter) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Cwd) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: perl(Carp) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libperl.so()(64bit) for package: 4:perl-5.16.3-286.el7.x86_64 ---> Package perl-Getopt-Long.noarch 0:2.40-2.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Usage) >= 1.14 for package: perl-Getopt-Long-2.40-2.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(Text::ParseWords) for package: perl-Getopt-Long-2.40-2.el7.noarch --> Running transaction check ---> Package perl-Carp.noarch 0:1.26-244.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Exporter.noarch 0:5.68-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-File-Path.noarch 0:2.09-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-File-Temp.noarch 0:0.23.01-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Filter.x86_64 0:1.49-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-PathTools.x86_64 0:3.40-5.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Simple.noarch 1:3.28-4.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Escapes) >= 1.04 for package: 1:perl-Pod-Simple-3.28-4.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(Encode) for package: 1:perl-Pod-Simple-3.28-4.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-Pod-Usage.noarch 0:1.63-3.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(Pod::Text) >= 3.15 for package: perl-Pod-Usage-1.63-3.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl-Pod-Perldoc for package: perl-Pod-Usage-1.63-3.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-Scalar-List-Utils.x86_64 0:1.27-248.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Socket.x86_64 0:2.010-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Storable.x86_64 0:2.45-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Text-ParseWords.noarch 0:3.29-4.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Time-HiRes.x86_64 4:1.9725-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Time-Local.noarch 0:1.2300-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-constant.noarch 0:1.27-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-libs.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-macros.x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-threads.x86_64 0:1.87-4.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-threads-shared.x86_64 0:1.43-6.el7 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package perl-Encode.x86_64 0:2.51-7.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Escapes.noarch 1:1.04-286.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-Pod-Perldoc.noarch 0:3.20-4.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: perl(parent) for package: perl-Pod-Perldoc-3.20-4.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: perl(HTTP::Tiny) for package: perl-Pod-Perldoc-3.20-4.el7.noarch ---> Package perl-podlators.noarch 0:2.5.1-3.el7 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package perl-HTTP-Tiny.noarch 0:0.033-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package perl-parent.noarch 1:0.225-244.el7 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Package Arch Version Repository Size ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Installing: mysql-commercial-client x86_64 5.7.16-1.1.el7 /mysql-commercial-client-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 94 M mysql-commercial-server x86_64 5.7.16-1.1.el7 /mysql-commercial-server-5.7.16-1.1.el7.x86_64 721 M Installing for dependencies: libaio x86_64 0.3.109-13.el7 base 24 k net-tools x86_64 2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 base 304 k perl x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 base 8.0 M perl-Carp noarch 1.26-244.el7 base 19 k perl-Encode x86_64 2.51-7.el7 base 1.5 M perl-Exporter noarch 5.68-3.el7 base 28 k perl-File-Path noarch 2.09-2.el7 base 26 k perl-File-Temp noarch 0.23.01-3.el7 base 56 k perl-Filter x86_64 1.49-3.el7 base 76 k perl-Getopt-Long noarch 2.40-2.el7 base 56 k perl-HTTP-Tiny noarch 0.033-3.el7 base 38 k perl-PathTools x86_64 3.40-5.el7 base 82 k perl-Pod-Escapes noarch 1:1.04-286.el7 base 50 k perl-Pod-Perldoc noarch 3.20-4.el7 base 87 k perl-Pod-Simple noarch 1:3.28-4.el7 base 216 k perl-Pod-Usage noarch 1.63-3.el7 base 27 k perl-Scalar-List-Utils x86_64 1.27-248.el7 base 36 k perl-Socket x86_64 2.010-3.el7 base 49 k perl-Storable x86_64 2.45-3.el7 base 77 k perl-Text-ParseWords noarch 3.29-4.el7 base 14 k perl-Time-HiRes x86_64 4:1.9725-3.el7 base 45 k perl-Time-Local noarch 1.2300-2.el7 base 24 k perl-constant noarch 1.27-2.el7 base 19 k perl-libs x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 base 687 k perl-macros x86_64 4:5.16.3-286.el7 base 43 k perl-parent noarch 1:0.225-244.el7 base 12 k perl-podlators noarch 2.5.1-3.el7 base 112 k perl-threads x86_64 1.87-4.el7 base 49 k perl-threads-shared x86_64 1.43-6.el7 base 39 k Transaction Summary ========================================================================================================================================================================================== Install 2 Packages (+29 Dependent packages) Total size: 826 M Total download size: 12 M Installed size: 852 M Is this ok [y/d/N]: y

Further information you can find in the slides of my colleague Jörg Brühe: MySQL selection also against the distirbution he presented at FrOSCon 2016.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: installationinstallmysqlenterpriserhelred hatcentosmariadbserver

Beware of large MySQL max_sort_length parameter

Wed, 2016-08-24 23:40

Today we had a very interesting phenomena at a customer. He complained that MySQL always get some errors of the following type:

[ERROR] mysqld: Sort aborted: Error writing file '/tmp/MYGbBrpA' (Errcode: 28 - No space left on device)

After a first investigation we found that df -h /tmp shows from time to time a full disk but we could not see any file with ls -la /tmp/MY*.

After some more investigation we found even the query from the Slow Query Log which was producing the same problem. It looked similar to this query:

SELECT * FROM test ORDER BY field5, field4, field3, field2, field1;

Now we were capable to simulate the problem at will with the following table:

CREATE TABLE `test` ( `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `data` varchar(64) DEFAULT NULL, `ts` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, `field1` varchar(16) DEFAULT NULL, `field2` varchar(16) DEFAULT NULL, `field3` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL, `field4` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL, `field5` varchar(32) DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`id`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=8912746 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 ;

An we have seen the query in SHOW PROCESSLIST:

| Query | 26 | Creating sort index | select * from test order by field5, field4, field3, field2, field1 |

But we were still not capable to see who or better how the hell mysqld is filling our disk!

I remembered further that I have seen some strange settings in the my.cnf before when we did the review of the database configuration. But I ignored them somehow.

[mysqld] max_sort_length = 8M sort_buffer_size = 20M

Now I remembered again these settings. We changed max_sort_length back to default 1k and suddenly our space problems disappeared!

We played a bit around with different values of max_sort_length and got the following execution times for our query:

max_sort_lengthexecution time [s]comment 64 8.8 s128 8.2 s256 9.3 s512 11.8 s 1k 14.9 s 2k 20.0 s 8k129.0 s 8M 75.0 sdisk full (50 G)
Conclusion

We set the values of max_sort_length back to the defaults. Our problems disappeared and we got working and much faster SELECT queries.

Do not needlessly change default values of MySQL without proving the impact. It can become worse than before!!!

The default value of max_sort_length is a good compromise between performance and an appropriate sort length.

Addendum

What I really did not like on this solution was, that I did not understand the way the problem occurred. So I did some more investigation in this. We were discussing forth and back if this could be because of XFS, because of sparse files or some kind of memory mapped files (see also man mmap).

At the end I had the idea to look at the lsof command during my running query:

mysql> SELECT * FROM test ORDER BY field5, field4, field3, field2, field1; ERROR 3 (HY000): Error writing file '/tmp/MYBuWcXP' (Errcode: 28 - No space left on device) shell> lsof -p 14733 COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME mysqld 14733 mysql 32u REG 8,18 9705619456 30147474 /tmp/MYck8vf4 (deleted) mysqld 14733 mysql 49u REG 8,18 749797376 30147596 /tmp/MYBuWcXP (deleted)

So it looks like that there were some deleted files which were growing!

Further information from the IRC channel led me to the libc temporary files (see also man 3 tmpfile).

And some hints from MadMerlin|work pointed me to:

shell> ls /proc//fd

Where you can also see those temporary files.

Thanks to MadMerlin|work for the hints!

Taxonomy upgrade extras: sortfileorder by

FromDual Performance Monitor for MySQL and MariaDB 0.10.6 has been released

Wed, 2016-08-03 19:40

FromDual has the pleasure to announce the release of the new version 0.10.6 of its popular Database Performance Monitor for MySQL, MariaDB, Galera Cluster and Percona Server fpmmm.

You can download fpmmm from here.

In the inconceivable case that you find a bug in fpmmm please report it to our Bug-tracker.

Any feedback, statements and testimonials are welcome as well! Please send them to feedback@fromdual.com.

This release contains various bug fixes and improvements. The previous release had some major bugs so we recommend to upgrade...

Changes in fpmmm v0.10.6 fpmmm agent
  • Do not connect to server bug fixed.
  • Special case when lock file was removed when it was read is fixed.
  • Added ORDER BY to all GROUP BY to be compliant for the future.
  • Zabbix 3.0 templates added.
  • MaaS: Function curl_file_create implemented for php < 5.5
  • MaaS: Debug message fixed.
  • Maas: Curl upload fixed.
  • MaaS: InnoDB: Deadlock and Foreign Key errors are only escaped with xxx when used in MaaS. Otherwise they are sent normally. Foreign Key errors with MaaS is now also escaped with xxx.
Process module
  • Wrong substitution in process vm calculation fixed.
Galera module
  • Template: Galera items changed from normal to delta.
InnoDB module
  • Template: Fixed InnoDB template to work with Zabbix v3.0.
  • Template: InnoDB locking graph improved.

For subscriptions of commercial use of fpmmm please get in contact with us.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: mysqlperformancemonitormonitoringfpmmmmaasperformance monitormpmrelease

MySQL Environment MyEnv 1.3.1 has been released

Wed, 2016-08-03 08:27

FromDual has the pleasure to announce the release of the new version 1.3.1 of its popular MySQL, Galera Cluster, MariaDB and Percona Server multi-instance environment MyEnv.

The new MyEnv can be downloaded here.

In the inconceivable case that you find a bug in the MyEnv please report it to our bug tracker.

Any feedback, statements and testimonials are welcome as well! Please send them to feedback@fromdual.com.

Upgrade from 1.1.x or higher to 1.3.1 # cd ${HOME}/product # tar xf /download/myenv-1.3.1.tar.gz # rm -f myenv # ln -s myenv-1.3.1 myenv

If you are using plug-ins for showMyEnvStatus create all the links in the new directory structure:

cd ${HOME}/product/myenv ln -s ../../utl/oem_agent.php plg/showMyEnvStatus/
Changes in MyEnv 1.3.1 MyEnv
  • Bash function bootstrap added.
  • Galera options --bootstrap --new-cluster and start method bootstrap was implemented. Typo fixed.
  • New 5.7 variables added and 5.6 variables to avoid nasty warnings in the error log added to the my.cnf template. Further new file system structure was prepared.
  • MySQL 5.7 variables for error log behaviour added.
  • Comment for log_bin added to my.cnf template.
  • ulimit problem fixed rudely in MyEnv init script.
  • wsrep_provider for CentOS added in my.cnf template.
  • Cgroup template improved.
  • Cgroup how-to improved and configuration example added.
MyEnv Installer
  • default as instance name set to blacklist.
  • Typo fixed in help of installMyEnv.
MyEnv Utilities
  • Test table prepared for explicit_defaults_for_timestamp configuration.
  • insert_test.sh now has optional parameters for user, host etc.

For subscriptions of commercial use of MyEnv please get in contact with us.

Taxonomy upgrade extras: myenvoperationMySQL Operationsmulti instanceconsolidationtestingupgradereleasecloudcgroupscontainermysqld_multi

Temporary tables and MySQL STATUS information

Fri, 2016-07-08 18:42

When analysing MySQL configuration and status information at customers it is always interesting to see how the applications behave. This can partially be seen by the output of the SHOW GLOBAL STATUS command. See also Reading MySQL fingerprints.

Today we wanted to know where the high Com_create_table and the twice as high Com_drop_table is coming from. One suspect was TEMPORARY TABLES. But are real temporary tables counted as Com_create_table and Com_drop_table at all? This is what we want to find out today. The tested MySQL version is 5.7.11.

Caution: Different MySQL or MariaDB versions might behave differently!

Session 1 Global Session 2 CREATE TABLE t1 (id INT);
Query OK, 0 rows affected     Com_create_table +1
Opened_table_definitions +1 Com_create_table +1
Opened_table_definitions +1    CREATE TABLE t1 (id INT);
ERROR 1050 (42S01): Table 't1' already exists     Com_create_table +1
Open_table_definitions +1
Open_tables +1
Opened_table_definitions +1
Opened_tables +1 Com_create_table + 1
Open_table_definitions +1
Open_tables +1
Opened_table_definitions +1
Opened_tables +1    CREATE TABLE t1 (id INT);
ERROR 1050 (42S01): Table 't1' already exists     Com_create_table + 1 Com_create_table + 1    DROP TABLE t1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected     Com_drop_table +1
Open_table_definitions -1
Open_tables -1 Com_drop_table +1
Open_table_definitions -1
Open_tables -1    DROP TABLE t1;
ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.t1'     Com_drop_table -1 Com_drop_table -1    CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE ttemp (id INT);
Query OK, 0 rows affected     Com_create_table +1
Opened_table_definitions +2
Opened_tables +1 Com_create_table +1
Opened_table_definitions +2
Opened_tables +1    CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE ttemp (id INT);
ERROR 1050 (42S01): Table 'ttemp' already exists     Com_create_table +1 Com_create_table +1    DROP TABLE ttemp;
Query OK, 0 rows affected     Com_drop_table +1 Com_drop_table +1    CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE ttemp (id int);
Query OK, 0 rows affected   CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE ttemp (id int);
Query OK, 0 rows affected Com_create_table +1
Opened_table_definitions +2
Opened_tables +1 Com_create_table +2
Opened_table_definitions +4
Opened_tables +2 Com_create_table +1
Opened_table_definitions +2
Opened_tables +1  DROP TABLE ttemp;
Query OK, 0 rows affected   DROP TABLE ttemp;
Query OK, 0 rows affected Com_drop_table +1 Com_drop_table +2 Com_drop_table +1
Conclusion
  • A successful CREATE TABLE command opens and closes a table definition.
  • A non successful CREATE TABLE command opens the table definition and the file handle of the previous table. So a faulty application can be quite expensive.
  • A further non successful CREATE TABLE command has no other impact.
  • A DROP TABLE command closes a table definition and the file handle.
  • A CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE opens 2 table definitions and the file handle. Thus behaves different than CREATE TABLE
  • But a faulty CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE seems to be much less intrusive.
  • Open_table_definitions and Open_tables is always global, also in session context.
Taxonomy upgrade extras: statustemporary table

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